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Authors: Csilla Varga, György Lengyel and Viktória Vásáry

Grzegorz W. Kolodko: Emerging Market Economies: Globalization and Development (Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate, 2003, 281 pp.) - Reviewed by Csilla Varga); Mihály Laki - Júlia Szalai: Vállalkozók vagy polgárok? A nagyvállalkozók gazdasági és társadalmi helyzetének ambivalenciái az ezredforduló Magyarországán (Entrepreneur or Citoyen? Ambivalences of the Economic and Social Position of Great Entrepreneurs at the Turn of the Millenium in Hungary) (Budapest: Osiris, 2004, 271 pp.) - Reviewed by György Lengyel; Guido van Huylenbroeck - Guy Durand (eds): Multifunctional Agriculture. A New Paradigm for European Agriculture and Rural Development (Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2003, 239 pp.) - Reviewed by Viktória Vásáry

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At history-taking, the assessment of the amount of regular alcohol consumption means data to be recorded on the basis of the patient’s self-report. In many cases, however, patients do not genuinely inform their physician on the extent of their alcohol consumption, and in certain cases they simply conceal it. In order to prove the diagnosis in diseases of alcoholic origin (e.g. hepatic disease), an objective parameter may often be needed to demonstrate concealed alcohol consumption. An objective marker of alcohol consumption is also required in other cases, as at taking out a life insurance policy or when forming a medical expert opinion in forensic medicine. The amount of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin may be such an indicator.The authors review the pathomechanism of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin formation, the methods of determination, the importance of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in the diagnostics of diseases caused by alcohol consumption, as well as its role in confirming alcohol consumption in life insurance and in forensic medicine.

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The 2008 crisis highlighted how fragile the labour markets of the European Union’s member states were, while it also directed attention to the eventual further deepening of integration as a potential solution. Nevertheless, employment and labour market policy competences are still on the national level with relatively low EU intervention. In a recent study, we explored the role of the EU in facilitating potential policy solutions with regards to labour market resilience until 2030. The study focused on labour market experts’ opinion, coming from different European countries; and took form of an online Policy Delphi Survey combined with backcasting to predict the importance and feasibility of policies concerning future challenges. The most important policies considered to be best suited to deal with the main challenges of the labour market in the EU until 2030 are education, investment in human and social capital and improvement of social policies and protection, including migration policy. The research revealed a systematic gap between the importance and feasibility of relevant solutions.

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Authors: Huba Kalász, József Lengyel, Tibor Szarvas, György Morovján and Imre Klebovich

Thin-layer chromatography has been used to monitor formaldehyde production during in-vivo metabolism of (−)-deprenyl. Formaldehyde was reacted with dimedone to yield its dimedone adduct, formaldemedone. Determination of 14 C-labeled formaldemedone was performed by planar displacement chromatography. The separated bands were detected either by digital autoradiography or on X-ray film after contact autoradiography. Two-dimensional separations have improved the evaluation.

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Authors: György Lengyel, László Lőrincz, Viktória Siklós and Dániel Füleki

The study investigates the digital divide concerning computer literacy in Hungary. It examines the differences of computer literacy of people with different social-demographic characteristics (gender, settlement type, education, labor market presence and income). It also investigates the intentions to learn computer skills. In this respect, smaller differences have been found then in the case of actual knowledge, which predicts the narrowing down of digital divide in the future. An attempt has been made to identify the institutional, technical and primordial conditions in everyday life that may influence both computer literacy and inclination to master the computer, and hence may function as “bridges” over the digital divide. Four of these factors have been studied: access to computers at the workplace, public internet access at the settlement, communication via cellular phone and effect of the family members' ITC knowledge. Statistical analysis and in-depth interviews were used as methods of examination. Based on logistic regression models it was found that the bridging factors exert weak or insignificant influence on the willingness to learn computer skills - if they are controlled - so these factors alone are insufficient to bridge the digital divide.

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Authors: Enikő Fehér, György Lengyel, Ádám Dán, Szilvia Farkas and Krisztián Bányai

Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) provoke haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of domestic geese. Outbreaks were detected in European countries and caused economic losses for goose keepers. Domestic ducks may be infected with GHPV without any signs typical for geese. The genomic organisation of some isolates was described but the gene functions and the pathomechanisms of the virus was not precisely defined. Here we describe the genome sequence and structure of GHPV of a goose from a Hungarian goose flock showing characteristics of the haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis. The GHPV genome investigated in this study was 5252 bp long and was very similar (99% nucleotide identity) to sequences deposited in the GenBank. All the whole GHPV genomes possess the same ORFs in length, including the VP1, VP2, VP3, ORF-X, t and T tumour antigens. Amino acid changes are detected mainly in the putative ORF-X region. Data about the GHPV genome imply a conserved genomic structure among isolates from different countries. Genomic and epidemiological studies may help vaccine development efforts and identify potential heterologous reservoirs of GHPV.

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Authors: Miklós Kásler, Éva Remenár, Csongor György Lengyel and András Boér


A fej-nyaki daganatok kezelésében az egyre bővülő nem sebészi kezelési lehetőségek ellenére a sebészi terápia mind a mai napig fontos szerepet játszik. A hagyományos sebészi beavatkozások mellett a célnak jobban megfelelő, egyre kifinomultabb eljárások is megjelentek. Ezek közé tartozik a lézeres beavatkozás. A lézer előnyei: a tökéletes irányíthatóság (az optika használata), a µm-es nagyságrendig értendő abszolút találati biztonság, az ablaszticitás, az érintésmentes alkalmazás, a szövetkímélő technika, a vérzéscsillapító hatás, a sebfelszíni ödéma teljes hiánya, a minimális posztoperatív hegesedés és a szöveti regeneráció elősegítése. Intézetünk Fej-Nyaksebészeti Osztályán 1981 és 2008 között összesen 7934 lézeres beavatkozást végeztünk különböző lokalizációjú és szöveti típusú fej-nyaki elváltozások miatt. A szerzők célja ismertetni a fej-nyaki bőrelváltozások, a szájüreg és a garat elváltozásainak lézeres kezelésében, a gége és a légcső szűkületeinek kezelésében, illetve a gégedaganatok kezelésében szerzett tapasztalataikat és eredményeiket.

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Authors: György Szabó, László Környei, Éva Keller, Gabriella Lengyel and János Fehér



The estimated amounts of alcohol consumed regularly are data recorded on the basis of patients’ self-report at history-taking. In many instances, however, patients do not genuinely inform their physician on the extent of their alcohol consumption, and in some cases they simply conceal it. In such cases determination of the amount of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) can be helpful.


To determine the levels of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in a healthy population.


The authors performed examinations among inhabitants of a small Hungarian town (Enese). Data of 409 individuals (average age: 49.7 years) have been processed. They included 204 men (average age: 49.3 years) and 205 women (average age: 50.3 years). Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) those who consumed no alcohol or only small quantities (< 40 g/day) and 2) the so-called social drinkers who consumed an amount corresponding to 40 to 60 g alcohol/day. Levels of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin were measured by immune turbidimetry with an automated instrument Hitachi 912 (Roche USA).


In persons consuming no or only small quantities of alcohol, the levels of CDT rise gradually with the increasing age. In the age group between 45 and 65 years the values are significantly higher than in people under 25 years of age. In the younger age group under 45 years, women were found to have significantly higher levels than men. In the social drinkers (beverage consumption corresponding to 40 to 60 g alcohol/day) the values were higher in all cases as compared to those in the non-consuming group, and in the age group between 45 and 65 years the levels were significantly higher than in the younger age group. Of them, men had significantly higher values as compared to women.


CDT levels show a moderate rise with the age, and social drinking increases the values as well.

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Authors: György Szabó, Éva Keller, László Környei, Gabriella Lengyel and János Fehér

Up to now, the measurement of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) has been used in persons with a regular alcohol consumption of > 60 g/day, primarily due to aspects of insurance medicine, as its levels have an informative value even at 2 to 3 weeks after the discontinuation of consumption. Objective: There is scarce information in the literature concerning CDT levels in individuals who used chemicals, and therefore we think our cases deserve interest. Case Report: In the first case the measurement was performed at 1 month after the use of a nitro-based varnish, and the CDT value was elevated. In the other case the examination was performed in an agricultural worker who had used chemical weed-killers regularly but discontinued it 6 months before. He also had a very high CDT value. Conclusion: As both workers were documented abstainers, the CDT elevation might be due to the exposition to chemicals. The authors consider these high CDT values as markers of an injury caused by exposition to chemicals.

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