The paper bellow aims at presenting and discussing Father Pavel Florensky's Sophiology on the basis of his theodicy concentrated in his doctorial dissertation published in 1914 which contains scrupulously detailed argumentations. Summarising his views concerning a positive approach to the utmost essential function and mission of philosophy, i.e. revealing the Higher Truth, Florensky points out his belief that it unquestionably belongs to the sphere of the Transcendent. Truth, which thus is knowledgeable exclusively via scrutinising the nature of the Holy Spirit (here Florensky intensely disputes Kantian agnosticism), is consequently to be observed as the indivisible single whole. The author attempts to systematise the ancient tradition of Sophia, which has been existent in a latent fashion in Russian mentality, by throwing some light upon both its roots to be traced back in the Old Testament and in patristics, and in Russian iconography. Florensky's work, whose unique impact on turn-of-the-century Russian Symbolist circles (Belyj and Blok) is not to be ignored, offers an insight into the theoretical background of Russian Sophiology. Following in the footsteps of Vl. Solovyev and referring to the Fathers of Church, Florensky considers it completely feasible to link Sophiology to living Christian theology and practice, offering denials against accusations of heresy. Utilising abundant interdisciplinary methods in his argumentation Florensky emphasises strife upon behalf of the self oriented towards the principle of self-perfection-a main trend also prophesied by his contemporary N. Berdjaev. Concepts of memory, dichotomies of darkness and light are given detailed discussion, from which, in harmony with Florensky's teachings, follows the transition from the empirical state of time and space to the higher realm of the Absolute. In this process dualism may be conquered by the interfering principle of the Holy Sophia (this interpretation modifies scanty clues found in Solovyev's oeuvre), who represents the principle of Unification. A novel differentiation provides distinction between Western Philosophy and Russian Sophiology by marking the historically corrupt Sophia in the former.
Specifying motifs occurring in the texture of the entire oeuvre of Nabokov the paper aims at re-evaluating Nabokov's early poetry via the analysis of the poem Lilith. By determining the lyrical persona Pushkin identified in this case with Nabokov, one may perceive the poem as the description of the journey in the otherworld reminiscent of Dante's way through Hell, Purgatory and Paradise and accomplished by Pushkin, whose fragmentary Rusalka can be looked upon as the subtext of Nabokov's poem. Nabokov several times claims his spiritual kinship with the most famous Russian poet, regarding him as his own ancestor and views his poetical heritage as the genuine embodiment of pure poetry. Considering the background to the poem-originally the pornographically biased theme was suggested by the émigré poet Khodasevich-the reader is undoubtedly presented the problem of amor ascendens and amor descendens represented in the description of the scene of the encounter with the Rusalka, Lilith, whose depiction is penetrated with profound eroticism. Nevertheless, the author's intention rather appears to be directed towards conveying the spiritual concept of sexuality, especially if we take into account Nabokov's never-ending polemic with Freud' s theory of human civilization. The figure of the Rusalka traditionally represented in Russian folk legends and originating in the beliefs about mermaids and water nymphs is closely related to other Nabokov heroines, most typically to Lolita. Seamaids and other similar creatures frequently fascinated the imagination of the representatives of German Romanticism as well, no wonder Russian men of letters including Pushkin and Nikolay Gogol, would incorporate them in their works, unconsciously touching upon the aspect of the Eternal Feminine which plays a key role in the spiritual rebirth of the individual as well as that of humankind according to the model given by the novel entitled Heinrich von Ofterdingen written by Novalis. The imagery of the text, on the other hand, is co-referential with ancient symbols of Alchemy, thus the juxtaposition with K. G. Jung's detailed and scholarly interpretation of medieval Alchemy can be verified as a working hypothesis. Such an approach is also supported by the fact that imagery related to various secret doctrines was focused upon in the writings of the generation of the 'younger' Symbolist poets in Russia at the turn of the century. The majority of their masterpieces would appear to be of great significance to Nabokov.
The article deals with Nabokov's first Russian novel subsequently translated into English. It provides a review concerning early Russian emigré criticism misinterpreting the novel. The chief aim of the article however is to establish a link between traditions of turn-of-the-century Russian Symbolist mainstream and themes incorporated in Nabokov's prose. Thus the non-existent heroine, Mašenka is discussed as a female type around which the poetry of Aleksandr Blok and Andrei Belyj would crystallyse, i.e. the Holy Sophia, whose coming would signal the coming of the Kingdom of the Holy Ghost, an entire transformation of the world and Humankind envisaged as early as the Age of German Romanticism, as the Birth of Theocracy, prophesied later by Russian religious philosophers first and foremost in the works of Vl. Solov´ev. Several motifs throughout the novel will confirm that Nabokov starts a dialogue with Blok, referring to the image of the Beautiful Lady, which was identified with not only the Virgin Mary, but the Gnostic erotically conceptualized image of Sophia as well. Creating his own microcosm, Nabokov in a letter openly admits his rivalry with the Creator, thus disclosing his credo concerning the art of literature. (NB. nearly the same con-cept will be echoed in his theoretical works later on.) From this one can conclude Nabokov partially exhibits his kinship to the Russian Religious Symbolists, following their concept of creation termed 'the theurgical way'. Mašenka, taken as the inevitable feminine principle therefore is deeply rooted in the ideal of spiritual transformation awaiting the hero, Ganin, who consequently gives up nursing hopes for the rebirth of his adolescent love affair, choos-ing the way of spiritual resurrection in a locus that is associated with Provence in the novel. The Berlin boarding house filled with phantom-like figures embodying recollections of czarist Russia establishes a realistic depiction of the life of the exiled Russians, however memories will prevail, thus leading the reader to interpret the novel rather as a novel about initiation, the sharing of spirituality.
“Every Russian writer owes something to Gogol.” This Nabokovian statement questions beliefs traditionally formulated in respect to Gogol’s oeuvre. His book paradoxically introduced by the depiction of the writer’s death implies that the motif of death has a specific impact on the genesis of the artefact. The similar postmodernist theory by Terc echoes in part ideas found in the symbolist perception of Gogol (Annensky, Blok, Rozanov, Merezhkovsky, and Andrei Bely). Gogol’s poetics centred upon this principle, reminiscent of Dante’s Divine Comedy, can be traced throughout the works of Russian authors – a thesis to be scrutinised in a series of forthcoming articles. The irrational in Gogol’s views concerning true art thus shall discard the labels of critical realism and art envisaged as the device meant to perfect human society, consequently via the transmutation of the self shall true art fulfil its ultimate mission. Introducing the dichotomy of ‘poet’ – ‘non-poet’ indicates a precursor of the Solovyovian doctrine of the superman. The ideal of transgression is expressed through applying the medieval interpretation of the language distinguishing Dante’s work, offering a profound reading of texts. The poetics of death penetrating Gogol’s works implicates handling and interpreting of various phenomena of culture synthesised, including models of self-perfection realised by alchemy, freemasonry, and Russian sophiology.
Authors:Andrea R. Varga, György Szakmány, Sándor Józsa, and Zoltán Máthé
Upper Carboniferous (Westphalian) coal-bearing fluvial sediments (Téseny Sandstone Formation) of the Slavonian-Drava Unit and their reworked pebbles and cobbles occurring in the western part of the Mecsek Mountains in Miocene conglomerate sequences (Szászvár Formation) were studied. Based on the petrographic and geochemical characteristics, the sandstone studied consists of arkose, subarkose, litharenite and sublitharenite. The main clastic source was a recycled orogenic area (collision suture and fold-thrust belt) dominated by metamorphic rocks. It was associated with a probably Variscan magmatic arc as indicated by the volcanic rock fragments. The original source area of these clastic sediments was felsic and the analyzed sandstone could correspond to a continental arc/active margin tectonic suite. The pebble and cobble-sized clasts of the conglomerate were predominantly derived from acidic and intermediate volcanic rocks, low-grade regional metamorphic rocks (different types of schist, metasandstone, mylonite, metagranitoid, gneiss, quartzite, and metaquartzite) and siliceous sedimentary rocks. Among the sedimentary clasts, reworked black siltstone and fine-grained sandstone from older (possibly Carboniferous) deposits are common. Chert and contact metamorphic rocks are present in minor quantity. The extracted volcanic clasts consist of andesite, trachyandesite, dacite and rhyolite. Their geochemistry suggests convergent, active continental margin affinity. Upper Carboniferous siliciclastic successions are widely known at the southeastern margin of the European Variscides. In the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the Cracow Sandstone Series (Westphalian C and D) shows a similar petrographic composition to that of the Téseny Sandstone Formation. Additionally, volcanic clasts of the Upper Carboniferous conglomerate from southern Transdanubia and the calc-alkaline volcanites from the Intra-Sudetic Basin can be characterized by similar geochemical patterns.