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CHAMP and GRACE global geopotential models EIGEN-3p, EIGEN-GRACE01S, GGM01S and GGM01C are compared with terrestrial gravity field data in Hungary. The methods used for comparison were direct comparison with gravity anomalies and the reference geoid solution method. We used free-air gravity anomalies interpolated on a 1' × 1.5' grid covering Hungary. In the second method these geopotential models were used to compute gravimetric geoid solutions and the results were compared with GPS/leveling data from EUVN campaign and the Hungarian GPS network. 

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A new quasi-geoid model for Hungary was determined by combining gravity data, GPS/levelling and vertical deflections. Reduction of the measurements was performed by using Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data sets. Calculation method was Least Squares Collocation (LSC) with self-consistent planar logarithmic covariance model. In the computations the weights of GPS/levelling data were large, in this way normal heights obtained from levelling are consistent with GPS heights and with the quasi-geoid model. Astrogeodetic-gravimetric, pure astrogeodetic and pure gravimetric solutions have been calculated besides the combined solution to investigate the discrepancies among the different models. The combined quasi-geoid model fits to the GPS/levelling data with standard deviation of ±4.9 cm, nevertheless at some GPS/levelling sites large differences were indicated.

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Bialostocki, Dierker, and Voxman proved that for any n = p +2, there is an integer B(n; p) with the following property. Every set of B(n; p) points in general position in the plane has n points in convex position such that the number of points in the interior of their convex hull is 0 mod p. They conjectured that the same is true for all pairs n = 3, p =2. In this note, we show that every su&ciently large point set determining no triangle with more than one point in its interior has n elements that form the vertex set of an empty convex n-gon. As a consequence, we show that the above conjecture is true for all n =5p=6+O(1).

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Western corn rootworm (WCR) ( Diabrotica v. virgifera Le Conte) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) adults were attracted only during daytime hours and showed a bimodal diel activity pattern when responding to the synthetic floral bait in the field. On the other hand, to the synthetic pheromone bait, good responses were recorded apart from daytime hours also well into the night. The present results suggest that in WCR the pheromonal communication channel and the channel connected with feeding (= floral lure) are separated.

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Often less than optimal PUFA content of human diet have started the research aimed to increase its quantity in meats. Including linseed and sunflower oil in rabbit feed effectively improves rabbit meat lipid composition, but its altered sensitivity to oxidative reactions could result in colour change. The effect of vegetable oil content of the diet and vitamin E supplementation was studied on the colour of rabbit loin and thigh meats and dissected fat. Meat lightness, redness, yellowness, hue and chromacity were measured with Minolta chromameter on samples cooled to 5 °C for 24 h. Including sunflower (2%) and linseed (2%) oil in rabbit diet changed the colour of the dissected fat making it lighter (L* 76.96 v. 73.79), more yellowish (b* 13.34 v. 11.41) and intense (C* 14.49 v. 12.35) coloured compared to the control diet without vegetable oils. To the effect of the vitamin E supplementation of vegetable oil containing feed redness of the thigh decreased (a* 4.41 v 5.44) and hue increased (h° 58.63 v. 49.76). The source of vitamin E supplement influenced only the colour of loin: natural vitamin E increased lightness (L* 53.03 v. 49.62), yellowness (3.86 v. 3.04) and chromacity (3.96 v. 3.25) while synthetic vitamin E did not. The changes of loin, thigh and fat colour observed in this study may be utilized in making the product more desirable to the consumer.

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This study reports on the in vivo effects of four endomorphin-2 (EM-2) derivatives (EMD1-4) containing unnatural amino acids, i.e. 2-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (Achc2), para-fluorophenylalanine (pFPhe4), β-methylphenylalanine (βMePhe4) and/or 2′,6′-dimethyltyrosine (Dmt1). After induction of osteoarthritis by monosodium iodoacetate into the ankle joint of male Wistar rats, a chronic intrathecal catheter was inserted for spinal drug delivery. The mechanical threshold was assessed by a dynamic aesthesiometer. Intrathecal injection of the original EM-2 and the ligands (0.3–10 μg) caused dose-dependent antiallodynic effects. The comparison of the different substances revealed that EMD3 and EMD4 showed more prolonged antinociception than EM-2, and the effects of the highest dose of EMD4 were comparable to morphine, while EMD3 caused paralysis at this dose. The potency of the different ligands did not differ from EM-2. The results show that the derivatives of EM-2 have similar in vivo potency to the original ligand, but their effects were more prolonged suggesting that these structural modifications may play a role in the development of novel endomorphin analogues with increased therapeutic potential.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: I. Potyó, I. Kása, Cs. Farkas, Gy. Gelybó, Zs. Bakacsi, M. Dencső, E. Tóth, and Á. Horel

The present study investigated the quantity of total suspended solids (TSS) in three small catchments and compared the data to turbidity measurements. The TSS data were based on filtration, drying and weight measurements, while the turbidity measurements were retrieved using a handheld device with a turbidity sensor. Water was collected daily at the catchment outlets from November 1, 2016 to May 31, 2017, representing the winter and spring seasons. The lowest quantity of TSS was detected at the catchment outlet of the Esztergályi Stream; however, there were two lakes close to the monitoring point where soil particles may have settled, possibly explaining the low TSS values. The Csorsza and Tetves streams had similar TSS values during winter, but in the spring samples the TSS values were approximately three times higher in the Csorsza Stream than in the Tetves Stream. The relationship between water discharge and TSS values was also investigated for the Tetves Stream, but no significant correlations were observed between them. The results suggested that the labour-intensive TSS measurements (e.g. filtration, soil weight measurements) could be replaced to a good approximation using the handheld device. The spatial heterogeneity within and between the catchments influences the amount of suspended sediment and hence the measurement accuracy. Therefore, the use of the handheld device should also be complemented with other methods, such as the filtration used in the present study, to attain more precise values.

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The 5α-reductase type 1 isozyme is a key enzyme in the metabolism of the androgen steroid hormones and inhibitors of this enzyme represent a new pharmacological treatment for several androgen dependent diseases. We developed a radiosubstrate in vitro incubation method for the determination of 5α-reductase type 1 activity using rat liver microsomes as an enzyme source. With this method we have studied the inhibiting activity of novel (5′ S )-17β-(4,5-dihydrooxazol-5-yl)androst-5-en-3-one compounds containing various derivatized phenyl substituents coupled to the exo -heterocyclic moiety. Tests revealed moderate inhibitory actions compared to finasteride, nevertheless, results provide interesting structure-activity relationship data.

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The aim of this paper was to find possible link between molecular and morphological similarities of 38 Hungarian white grape varieties. Three aspects of morphological and molecular similarity were assessed in the study: comparison of the ordered variety pairs, assessment of molecular and morphological mean similarity differences and separation of varieties into similar groups by divisive cluster analysis to define (DIANA). Molecular similarity was calculated from binary data based on allele sizes obtained in DNA analysis. DNA fingerprints were determined at 9 SSR loci recommended by the European GrapeGen06 project. Morphological similarity was calculated on the basis of quantitative morphological descriptors. Morphological and molecular similarity values were ordered and categorized after pairwise comparison. Overall correlation was found to be weak but case by case assessment of the variety pairs confirmed some coincidence of molecular and morphological similarity. General similarity position of each variety was characterized by Mean Similarity Index (MSI). It was calculated as the mean of n-1 pair similarity values of the variety concerned. Varieties were ordered and compared by the difference of the index. Five varieties had low morphological and high molecular MSI meaning that they share several SSR marker alleles with the others but seems relatively distinct according to the expression of their morphological traits. Divisive cluster analysis was carried out to find similar groups. Eight and twelve cluster solutions proved to be sufficient to distinct varieties. Morphological and molecular similarity groups partly coincided according to the results. Several clusters reflected parent offspring relations but molecular clustering gave more realistic results concerning pedigree.

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