. Carbon-monoxide (CO) decreases placental vascular impedance. We assessed the consequences of smoking-induced temporary maternal CO-increase on fetal and placental circulation.
. In a prospective study twenty-nine smoking pregnant women and their fetuses were evaluated. We determined the changes in maternal blood CO levels after smoking, and the concomitant changes in maternal and fetal circulation. Changes in fetal heart rate, uterine artery (UTA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and descending aorta (DA) flow were measured by Doppler velocimetry. Changes in maternal CO level and umbilical flow value were assessed by paired t-test. The correlation between CO level and placental flow was assessed by partial correlation test.
. CO level increased (mean±SD 1.7±0.65% vs. 2.36±0.89, p<0.0001). Nicotine-related maternal circulatory parameters changed significantly, but uterine flow values remained unchanged. Fetal heart rate increased, while flow in MCA and DA showed no change. CO-dependent umbilical artery impedance remained unchanged (Pulsatility Index: 0.956±0.18 vs. 0.948±0.21). Partial correlation between CO level and umbilical arterial impedance showed no significance (r:−0.324).
. Despite significant CO elevation, the mainly CO-regulated placental flow remained unchanged.
Neutron activation analysis was used for provenance studies of ceramics from the early middle ages (avar period). 14 trace elements and Fe were determined by multiisotope comparator method. Computerized mathematical statistical methods (cluster-, and similarity analysis) were used for grouping the samples according to the similarity of their trace element distributions.
Inflammation induced anemia and resistance to erythropoietin are common features in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated levels of cytokines and enhanced oxidative stress, conditions associated with inflammatory states, are implicated in the development of anemia. Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of cytokine cascade and the associated acute-phase response, as it often occurs in patients with CKD (1, 2, 3), divert iron from erythropoiesis to storage sites within the reticuloendothelial system leading to functional iron deficiency and subsequently to anemia or resistance to erythropoietin. Other processes have also been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of anemia provoked by the activated immune system including an inhibition of erythroid progenitor proliferation and differentiation, a suppression of erythropoietin production and a blunted response to erythropoietin. The present review concerns the underlying alterations in iron metabolism induced by chronic inflammation that result in anemia.
The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized tri-layer structure with unique functional properties. Podocyte dysfunction and cytoskeletal disorganization leads to disruption of the slit diaphragma, and proteinuria. Inflammatory diseases involving the kidney as well as inherited podocytopathies or diabetic nephropathy cause injury of the podocyte network. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity that is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome with severe proteinuria in both adults and children. Several causative genes have been identified in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Mutations of the transient receptor potential canonical-6 (TRPC6), a non-selective cation channel that is directly activated by diacylglycerol (DAG), cause a particularly aggressive form of FSGS. Angiotensin II, acting through its AT1 receptor, plays a critical role in generation of proteinuria and progression of kidney injury in a number of kidney diseases, including FSGS. Mounting evidence suggest the central role of TRPC6 and perhaps other TRPC channels in the pathogenesis of FSGS as well as of acquired forms of proteinuria such as diabetic nephropathy or hypertension. Identification of signaling pathways downstream of TRPC6 may provide novel targets for the treatment of proteinuria and prevent progression of podocyte injury.
In this study, pressed apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) juice was concentrated using complex membrane technology with different module combinations: UF-RO-OD, UF-RO-MD, UF-NF-OD and UF-NF-MD. In case of the best combination a cross-flow polyethylene ultrafiltration membrane (UF) was applied for clarification, after which preconcentration was done using reverse osmosis (RO) with a polyamide membrane, and the final concentration was completed by osmotic distillation (OD) using a polypropylene module. The UF-RO-OD procedure resulted in a final concentrate with a 65-70 °Brix dry solid content and an excellent quality juice with high polyphenol content and high antioxidant capacity.Nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) were not proper economic solutions.The influence of certain operation parameters was examined experimentally. Temperatures of UF and RO were: 25, 30, and 35 °C, and of OD 25 °C. Recycle flow rates were: UF: 1, 1.5, and 2 m3 h−1; RO: 200, 400, and 600 l h−1; OD: 20, 30 and 40 l h−1. The flow rates in the module were expressed by the Reynolds number, as well. Based on preliminary experiments, the transmembrane pressures of UF and RO filtration were 4 bar and 50 bar, respectively. Each experimental run was performed three times. The following optimal operation parameters provided the lowest total cost: UF: 35 °C, 2 m3 h−1, 4 bar; RO: 35 °C, 600 l h−1, 50 bar; OD: 20, 30 and 40 l h−1; temperature 25 °C.In addition, experiments were performed for apricot juice concentration by evaporation, which technique is widely applied in the industry using vacuum and low temperature.For description the UF filtration, a dynamic model and regression by SPSS 14.0 statistics software were applied.
Several scientific papers suggest that microbial transglutaminase (mTG) is capable of reducing the salt content of cured and/or heat-treated meat products (ham, frankfurters, meat ball). These scientific results are not widely known in Hungary, and as a result of this, only little experience was gathered in our meat industry. According to this lack of knowledge, our aim was to lower the curing salt to a still microbiological safe level using mTG by frankfurters, one of the most well-known heat treated meat products in Hungary. The observed technofunctional properties suggest to use mTG enzyme preparation at 0.5% concentration. This enzyme dosage can reduce the average 1.8% salt content to 1.6% and it also may contribute to extended shelf life of popular frankfurters. Our sensorial analysis revealed that the panellists have not found a loss in quality between 1.4% and 1.6% salt.
In this study, we examined the relationship between levels of lactoferrin (LF) and IL-17 in human serum and breast milk and the development of allergy in children. LF and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA in healthy (n=19) and allergic mothers (n=21) on the 5th day after delivery. Two years later, information on breastfeeding and allergic outcomes was collected by questionnaires from parents of both groups and district child care nurses. Significantly higher concentrations of LF were found in the breast milk of allergic mothers compared to the healthy controls. At 2 years of age, only those three infants became allergic from the atopic group in whose starting breast milk samples a very high LF level (306 μg mg–1 protein) or simultaneously elevated concentrations of LF and IL-17 were measured. These findings indicate that the very early measurement of LF and IL-17 levels in the breast milk of allergic mothers may help to predict the allergy development in their infants.