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Fibre-rich fruit juices are playing an increasing role in healthy nutrition, and consumers are regarding them, especially citrus juices of 100% fruit content, as reliable sources of vitamin C. Nevertheless relatively few scientific data are available on vitamin C retention during the heat treatment of aseptically packed fruit juices made from fruit concentrates. Authors investigated this problem within the scope of OTKA T 014965 research project (Körmendy et al., 1998, 1999a, 1999b; Pátkai, 1998).

Instead of separate case studies on different types of fruit juices and technologies, authors analysed the vitamin C content of model solutions with similar composition to real citrus juices as a function of temperature and duration of heat treatment and that of initial oxygen and ascorbic acid concentration. Based on the measured data, they elaborated kinetic relations and determined the reaction rate constants of vitamin C decomposition under the experimental conditions. By means of the calculated kinetic relations and reaction rate constants one can estimate the losses of vitamin C in the case of known parameters of the heat treatment, packaging material, oxygen and vitamin C concentration within the investigated domain. Results may promote technology and product development in the field of citrus fruit juices.

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Abstract

Epidemics and pandemics have happened throughout the history of mankind. Before the end of the 20th century, scientific progress successfully eradicated several of the pathogens. While no one has to be afraid of smallpox anymore, there are some new pathogens that have never caused human disease before. Coronaviruses are a family of enveloped RNA viruses. In the 21st century, three of them have caused serious pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2002 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 2012. In 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has destroyed hundreds of thousands of lives and continues to rage.

Open access
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Viktória Ferencz
,
Beatrix Domján
,
László Gerő
,
Tímea Tänczer
, and
Gy. Ádám Tabák

Absztrakt

Az inzulinkezelés a cukorbetegség leghatékonyabb kezelési módja. A microvascularis szövődmények kockázatának egyértelmű csökkentése és az esetleges hosszú távú cardiovascularis előnyök elérésének azonban ára van: a (súlyos) hypoglykaemia kockázata 2–3-szorosára nő, továbbá az inzulinkezelt betegek testsúlya gyorsabban növekszik, mint az egyéb kezelésben részesülőké. Egy vizsgálatban ráadásul az intenzív glykaemiás kezelés mellett (ami gyakrabban igényelt inzulint) növekedett az összmortalitás is. Jól ismert ezeken kívül az inzulin növekedési faktorszerű hatása, ami fokozott mitogenitást eredményezhet. Ezen potenciális mellékhatások mind a beteg, mind az orvos részéről gátat szabhatnak az inzulinterápia elkezdésének. A közleményben a szerzők bemutatják, hogy a cukorbetegség diagnózisakor alkalmazott átmeneti intenzív inzulinkezelés hosszú távú remissziót eredményezhet. Tárgyalják továbbá az inzulinkezelés elkezdésének optimális módját (napi egyszeri bázisinzulin), illetve az intenzifikálás lehetőségeit is. Kitérnek az analóg inzulinok farmakokinetikai előnyeire, és bemutatják, hogy az új bázisanalógok mellett hasonló hatékonyság érhető el, mint a humán inzulinnal, miközben a hypoglykaemia kockázata körülbelül 20–30%-kal csökken. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(36), 1443–1450.

Open access
Physiology International
Authors:
Klara Gadó
,
Gy. Ádám Tabák
,
István Vingender
,
Gyula Domján
, and
Gabriella Dörnyei

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes is a frequent chronic disease. Given its strong positive association with older age, it is a significant public health issue in elderly populations. Furthermore, the aging of the population, driven by increasing life expectancy in high and middle-income countries leads to an increasing prevalence of diabetes.

Although the same diagnostic criteria apply to the elderly and to younger people, there are unique aspects to the care for elderly type 2 diabetes patients. Both treatment goals and preferred medications, as well as non-pharmacological approaches should be adjusted in the elderly. For example, increasing the amount of physical activity may encounter difficulties, while introducing an appropriate diet may be more challenging. The patients' therapeutic adherence requires special attention due to cognitive and physical limitations. The most important treatment goal is to avoid hypoglycemia. Frailty, social and economic issues, comorbidities and the consequent polypharmacy frequently causing drug-drug interactions, as well as the increased danger of drug toxicity due to renal failure are only some of the problems that make the health care for old diabetes patients extremely difficult. Adequate care requires cooperation from a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals.

Acute diabetes complications have a higher mortality in the elderly, thus close attention must be paid to avoid them. Family members should be involved in the care of elderly diabetes patients, and it is recommended to educate them on clinical signs of complications. Regular care for the patients including feedback on quality of life and early signs of health issues are essential.

Open access