The biologically active amines of grapes, aszú-grapes, aszú-wines of Tokaj region were analysed to study the effect of Botrytis cinerea on the grapes. It was established that grapes contained mainly spermidine, putrescine and spermine, however, in the aszú-grapes new amine compounds such as agmatine, phenethylamine, butylamine and pentylamine isomers appeared. The spermine content showed an increase in all aszú-grape varieties compared to the grapes. During winemaking processes, spermine disappeared and the concentration of tyramine increased in the aszú-wines. The concentration of spermidine decreased during the ageing of the product. The ratio of tyramine and amine content of the samples were found to be within a limited interval.
Authors:M. Novák-Hajós, J. Szamos, M. Gasztonyi and Gy. Hajós
Seed protein pattern of control and M
mutant soybean (
[L.] Merr.) lines in defatted and non-defatted raw flour was studied after 60% 2-propanol extraction, SDS-PAGE separation, colloidal staining and densitometric evaluation to detect a new variant of the protein KTI and/or BBI, furthermore to find new protein(s) of low molecular weight. Electrophoretic separation of defatted and non-defatted control soybean samples showed the same protein patterns. On the densitograms of mutant lines quantitative and qualitative differences could be observed. Defatted raw soy samples reflected more differences in the number of peaks than non-defatted ones. Beside soy trypsin inhibitors, several more soy proteins of low molecular weight are dissolved. KA mutant line 9 has a unique 2-propanol soluble protein pattern, and a new protein band of Rf=0.37 compared to the control line. Sixty percent 2-propanol soluble soybean seed proteins are suitable for cultivar identification and characterization, furthermore to distinguish soybean lines of the same origin.
Authors:B. Wróblewska, L. Jędrychowski, E. Szabó and Gy. Hajós
Commercial sodium caseinate isolate (SCI) was hydrolysed with either protease Subtilisina carlsberg - Alcalase 2.4 FG (purchased from Novo Nordisk), pronase from Streptomyces griseus, and papain EC 188.8.131.52 (both from Sigma) in a two-step process to determine the changes in the immunoreactivity of a-, ß- and ?-casein. Enzymatic hydrolysis of SCI was performed by pH-stat method. Hydrolysates were analysed using IEF, SDS-PAGE, 2D electrophoresis, FPLC-gel permeation chromatography. Immunoreactive properties of peptide fractions separated from the hydrolysates by FPLC were determined using dot-immunobinding and ELISA methods. The two-step process was observed to be effective in reduction of casein fractions immunoreactivity, however, allergenic epitopes were still present in all peptide fractions.
Authors:L. Bóna, N. Adányi, R. Farkas, E. Szanics, E. Szabó, Gy. Hajós, A. Pécsváradi and E. Ács
Selenium (Se), a main antioxidant component in cereal grain, is essential for animals and human health reducing risk factors of many dangerous diseases. Over the past decades, intake of this trace element had dropped due to low Se content in large areas of European countries including Hungary. Se-rich, high-protein cereal products became a focus for both animal feed and human consumption. In the study, we examined the following: i) grain Se concentration of wheat (
L.) and triticale (
Wittm.) intake to detect intra-and inter-genetic variations and ii) possible comparison relationship of this trace element to end product integrity, quality and relevant technological aspects. Se content of the whole meal grain was tested via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Despite generally poor Se soil content of the experimental area where samples were collected, significant differences were found for both species. In general, triticale contained higher Se concentration than wheat did. Spring type cereals had significantly higher grain Se and protein concentration than those of winter ones. Grain Se content showed positive correlation with magnesium, copper, zinc, manganese, tocopherol and crude protein concentration. Remarkable intra-specific variations were found in Se concentration, however in future, additional studies, methods and resources will be required for identifying ways of increasing Se content in cereal foodstuff and feed.
Authors:Á. Halász, E. Horváth-Szanics, M. Nagy-Gasztonyi, J. Pauk and Gy. Hajós
Protein sets, enzyme activities and immune reactivity against wheat germ agglutinin in the albumin-globulin fractions of parent and herbicide resistant transgenic wheat lines were studied.Our results showed significantly increased amylase activities and increased immune reactivity against wheat germ agglutinin in the herbicide resistant transgenic wheat lines, investigated. The amylases and lectins belong to the plant food allergens; this explains why both scientists and consumers are interested in assessing the allergenic potential of plant proteins and the safety assessment of novel foods and GM foods in highlight of food safety. This paper is an important contribution to our database and the understanding of what is going on with genetic engineering of crop plants.