The authors’ aim is to reveal the reflection of Hungarian political and economic transformation in the public health nutrition during the last two and a half decades. Results of the four representative, nationwide dietary surveys completed in this period have been analysed for macro-, micronutrient intakes and overweight/obesity. The food consumption-related vital statistics provided by Hungarian Central Statistical Office were also analysed and compared. There are certain signs of favourable improvements: slight decrease of energy intake in females, growing share of plant protein, less saturated, more polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, less sugar. These findings are in parallel with some positive general statistical issues: the extension of life expectancy, lesser acute myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and stomach cancer mortality, more vegetables and fruit, lesser lard, more oil consumption. On the other hand, there are several detrimental nutritional issues that influence the health status of Hungarian population: still high energy, fat and cholesterol intake, low complex carbohydrates, too much sodium (salt), insufficiencies in some vitamin, macro- and microelements intake. The number of overweight/obese people takes up fairly high level. The surveys somewhat revealed the role of nutrition in the health status of population and now a particle of possibility for its improvement is available
A new method has been developed for the separation and determination of low-level activity of strontium-90 through its daughter product yttrium-90 from natural water. Yttrium was separated and isolated from 1001 water at pH 5.5–5.7 by 8-quinolinol substituted silica gel. The yttrium was eluted with hydrochloric acid and precipitated with ammonium oxalate. The precipitate of yttrium oxalate was counted with a low-background beta-counter. The recovery of yttrium-90 is (64±4)% (n=5).
The crystal data of theα- andγ-modifications of KH(IO3)2 were determined. The rhombicβ-modification which has been described by earlier authors could not be obtained. In the course of thermal decomposition both crystal types release water, then I2O5 and O2, leaving a residue of KI. As an intermediate, K2I4O11 is formed. The temperatures of the DTA and DTG peaks of theα- andγ-modifications, were found to be different.
Authors:B. Szabó, E. Tyihák, Gy. Szabó and L. Botz
Papaver somniferum produces secondary metabolites, which have important roles in their self-defence processes, in plant biochemistry and in allelochemistry. We can see that different stress effects change the quantity of alkaloids. The object of the experiments is, in what manner changes the content of alkaloids of poppy in case of irregular stress effects. Papaver somniferum (cv. 'Kék Duna', Budakalász) plants were grown for 2 months from seeds in quartz-sand (in natural light, temperature: 24-28 °C, in Knop's nutritive solution). In this paper we studied the alkaloid of poppy treated with two kind of stress factors: mycotoxin and drought, respectively. Both the quantity and the spectrum of alkaloids were measured after different separation procedures. Thin layer chromatography (TLC and HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were applied. Content of the level of formaldehyde (HCHO) also increases in plants with different stress effects. Our presupposition is that the formation of methyl groups of poppy alkaloids takes place through HCHO. It gave us an opportunity to examine changing of formaldehyde (HCHO) level in biotic and abiotic stress situation. Formaldehyde in dimedone adduct form can be detected in injured tissues of Papaver somniferum. As a consequence, the stress effects can be detected in poppy plants by two kinds of method. At first we measured content of alkaloids. Drought stress produced a higher level of the alkaloids, but the mycotoxin stress did not show significant results.
Komárek, J. and Anagnostidis, K. (2005): Cyanoprokaryota. 2. Teil: Oscillatoriales. - In: Büdel, B., Krienitz, L., Gärtner, G. and Schagerl, M. (eds): Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 19/2. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Elsevier GmbH, München, 759 pp.; Ross, I. A. (2005): Medicinal plants of the world - chemical constituents, traditional and modern medicinal uses. Volume 3. - Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, 623 pp. (ISBN 1-59259-887-0); Siver, P. A., Hamilton, P. B., Stachura-Suchoples, K. and Kociolek, J. P. (2005): Diatoms of North America: The freshwater flora of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. - In: Lange-Bertalot, H. (ed.): Iconographia Diatomologica. Annotated Diatom Micrographs. Vol. 14. A. R. G. Gantner Verlag K. G. Ruggel, 463 pp.;
Authors:I. Fazekas, Gy. Szabó, Sz. Szabó, M. Paládi, G. Szabó, T. Buday, Z. Túri and A. Kerényi
The aim of our report is to refer on the actual state of small biogas power plants in Hungary summarising the increase in their number and capacity and their effects on climatic change. The above is based on the CO2 emission of the energetic utilization of biogas and the calculation of its ecological footprint that were compared to the environmental effects of natural gas energetic utilization. The aim of this paper does not include the complete life cycle analysis therefore the environmental benefits of the energetic utilization of biogas produced from various raw material are presented via only the direct CO2 emission of the production process.
Authors:T. Buday, Gy. Szabó, I. Fazekas, M. Paládi, Sz. Szabó, G. Szabó and A. Kerényi
Heating with the use of ambient energy by heat pumps is a very effective way to reduce CO2 emission. However, efficiency, economic and environmental advantages depend on the type of the heat pump and the temperature of the source, the latter usually changes during the heating season. The aim of the paper is to give the annual pattern of the COP and emission as a function of the typical source temperature pattern, moreover yearly summarized energetic and emission values are also added in the case of air source, water source and ground source heat pump systems, compared to some conventional heating mode.