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  • Author or Editor: Gy. Vincze x
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One of the most important enriching materials at the processing of alimentary pastes is the egg, which usage is limited because of its water content. Removing water from liquid whole egg with membrane processes, such as ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) was applied for raising the solid content at a temperature of 25 °C at constant flow rate. The separation procedures were carried out on laboratory scale equipments. The initial solid content of the liquid whole egg was 24 refractive (Ref%). The effects of different recirculation flow rates and transmembrane pressure differences were investigated on the permeate flux of the liquid egg. The product had up to 30, 35.5 and 36 Ref% solids in case of UF, NF and RO, respectively. From the resistance data it is obvious, that the polarization layer resistances (RP) determine the values of the permeate flux. The total solid content of permeate was 0.3 and 0.1 Ref% in case of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, respectively. On the basis of experiments main data of a continuous pilot scale system were calculated and simplified cost estimation was performed using recent economic data of year 2011.

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Basket willow (Salix viminalis L.) was grown in open-field experiment. The brown forest soil (sand texture, pHKCl 7.7, humus 1.6%, CEC 11.5 cmolc/kg; Cd-0.11, Cu-7.1, Pb-8.1, Zn-25.0 mg/kg in aqua regia extract) was treated with municipal sewage sludge compost (MSSC) (25 t/ha wet weight, 12.8 t/ha dry weight in 2009; 50 and 100 t/ha wet weight, 25.4 t/ha and 50.8 t/ha dry weight in 2008). The MSSC was moderately contaminated with toxic metals (Cd-<0.5, Cu-140, Pb-19, Zn-440 mg/kg in aqua regia extract in 2008, and Cd-<0.5, Cu-299, Pb-69, Zn-865 mg/kg in aqua regia extract in 2009). Accumulation of Zn in treated willow leaves doubled 4 months after 25 t/ha MSSC application, while in treated twig tips 30% less Zn was found than in control. Zn (max. 133 mg/kg d.w.), Cd (max. 1.15 mg/kg d.w.) and Cu (max. 7.73 mg/kg d.w.) accumulations in leaves or twig tips of basket willow were 16 months after 50 or 100 t/ha MSSC application. Twenty months after MSSC application in the harvested twigs (shoots without leaves) of 50 or 100 t/ha MSSC-treated cultures the Zn concentrations were only 9.8–14.3% higher than in controls. We suppose that there is not a direct danger of considerable Zn accumulation in the bioash after incineration of MSSC-treated willow shoots in biomass power plants.

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