This paper describes the occurrence of a rare skin tumour that has been removed surgically from the upper lip of a 13-year-old Tibetan spaniel. The tumour was 0.5 cm in diameter and macroscopically appeared as a single dermal mass, but histopathological analysis identified it as a biphasic collision mixed tumour. In the anatomically uniform tumour, 70% (4 mm in diameter) of the total parenchyma was formed by a high-grade sarcoma (with the presence of giant cells), and about 30% of it (1 mm in diameter) was a malignant melanoma (again with the presence of giant cells). The histologically distinct, but anatomically uniform tumour parts were separated by a macroscopically invisible, non-neoplastic epithelial process originating from the overlying hyperplastic epidermis. The two malignant components did not infiltrate the peritumoural vessels and each other’s substance. In the sarcoma part, the mitotic and apoptotic indexes were 32 and 8, respectively, whereas in the melanoma part the same parameters were 10 and 6, respectively. During the immunohistochemical investigations anti-α-SMA, anticytokeratin AE1-AE3, anti-Melan-A, anti-Ki-67 and anti-claudin-5 antibodies were applied. In conclusion, this is the first report of a primary cutaneous malignant biphasic collision mixed tumour formed by an anaplastic sarcoma with giant cells and a malignant melanoma.
Uterine adenoacanthoma, a subtype of primary endometrial adenocarcinoma, was found in a tissue specimen removed during ovariohysterectomy from an 8-year-old German Shepherd dog. Multifocal, benign squamous metaplastic islands were identified in the parenchyma of the malignant endometrial tumour. The tumour was highly infiltrative but did not metastasise to other organs. Detailed immunohistochemical analyses were carried out in order to characterise the immunophenotype of the tumour.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses affecting felid species worldwide. A study was performed over a period of 5 months in Ireland with the aim to get an updated and more realistic prevalence of these retroviruses. A total of 183 EDTA-anticoagulated whole-blood samples were collected from cats distributed between 10 clinics. The samples were tested using both point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Basic clinical data and vaccination history were also recorded for the sampled cats. The results of ELISA tests showed a prevalence of 10.4 and 3.3% for FIV and FeLV, respectively, and an apparent prevalence of 9.3% for FIV and 11.6% for FeLV with PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial polymerase (pol) gene sequences obtained from 8 FIV-positive strains showed that all but one of the Irish strains belonged to FIV subtype A, and one to subtype B. The overall mean genetic similarity between the analysed strains was 91.15%.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8, -10 and -18 in the intact fundic and pyloric gastric mucosa of dogs. Intense, linear, membranous claudin-18 positivity was detected in the surface gastric cells and in the epithelial cells of the gastric glands both in the fundic and pyloric stomach regions. The mucous neck cells in the apical part of the glands, furthermore the parietal cells and chief cells of the basal part of the gland were all positive for claudin-18, in the same way as the enteroendocrine cells. Cells of the basal part of the pyloric glands showed intense, linear, membranous claudin-2 positivity, but cells of the superficial portion of these glands and the surface gastric cells in this region were claudin-2 negative. Fibroblasts, endothelial cells, lymphocytes of the propria layer, smooth muscle cells and vegetative neurons were all negative for claudin-2. All gastric epithelial cells were negative for claudin-1, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8 and -10. The endothelial cells of the propria layer had intense claudin-5 positivity. We assume that claudin-18 forms a paracellular barrier against gastric acid in the healthy canine stomach, in the same way as in mice.
The lymphatic organs of 50 pigs from a total of eight farms located at different sites in the epizootiological region of North Bačka County were studied to obtain data on the prevalence of circoviral infections in Serbia. All of the pigs examined had clinical signs suggestive of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). All pigs underwent necropsy and tissue samples were taken for histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and PCR analysis. The presence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) was established by PCR analysis in the organs of the pigs tested. The most frequent histopathological lesions of lymphoid tissue linked with the presence of positive immunostaining for PCV2 Cap antigen confirmed the existence of PMWS in all farms tested in North Bačka County. Using PCR, histopathological and IHC techniques, the presence of PMWS was proved in the Republic of Serbia. During necropsy, generalised enlargement of the lymph nodes was evident. The most common histopathological finding was lymphocyte depletion in the follicular and perifollicular areas of lymph nodes. Infiltration by macrophages was also recorded. By IHC analysis, the cytoplasm of macrophages was shown to contain a large amount of the ORF2-coded Cap antigen of PCV2. Lymphocyte depletion and large numbers of macrophages were recorded in the tonsils, spleen, intestinal lymphatic tissue, Peyer’s patches and ileocaecal valve. The presence of typical granulomatous lesions with multinuclear giant cells (MGCs) was also recorded in the lymphatic tissue. Cap antigen was shown to be present in macrophages and less often in lymphocytes.
This study aimed to test the efficacy of samplings for the detection of Haemophilus parasuis after metaphylactic treatment and subsequent challenge using an established model for Glässer’s disease. In this model, 36 piglets were equally assigned to a negative control, a positive control, and two trial groups receiving tulathromycin 7 or 4 days prior to challenge. The piglets of three groups were challenged intratracheally with H. parasuis serovar 5. As a result, four pigs in each challenged group died or had to be euthanised within 10 days post challenge. The remaining 15 pigs of these challenged groups survived until termination of the experiment (days 14–15). All pigs were necropsied and collective swabs of serosal surfaces were tested by bacterial culture and PCR. Samples of tarsal synovial fluid and joint capsule, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain swabs were tested by PCR. A total of 22 out of the 27 challenged animals had macroscopically detectable polyserositis and all of them tested positive in the collective swab samples. Haemophilus parasuis was more frequently detected in pigs that died within the first 10 days compared to those surviving until days 14–15 (P < 0.001), and those that succumbed within 10 days showed higher positivity rates in the brain and CSF. All pigs which were positive in the CSF had detectable meningitis. At days 14–15, joint samples from 5 of the remaining 15 pigs tested positive for H. parasuis. Four of these five animals did not show any macroscopic or histological lesions in the joints. In conclusion, collective swabs were the best sample material in acute cases, whereas samples from the joints gave the best results in chronic cases. In this challenge model it was not possible to prove the metaphylactic effect of tulathromycin administered 4 and 7 days prior to infection with H. parasuis.