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Abstract  

The need for more efficient and 'greener' flame retardants for polymeric materials is ever present and of increasing intensity as regulatory agencies continue to display concern about the environmental impact of traditional materials. Compounds capable of multiple modes of action would be particularly desirable. Compounds containing both bromine (for good gas-phase activity) and nitrogen (to promote solid-phase activity) should be good candidates for development as flame retardant agents. A series of 2,4,6-tri[(bromo)xanilino]-1,3,5-triazines have been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. The degradation characteristics of these compounds have been examined using thermogravimetry. They undergo step-wise decomposition beginning at about 400C.

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The stability behaviour of a thin-film superconductor under a localized release of thermal disturbance is investigated. Two-dimensional conjugate film/substrate conduction equation with anisotropic thermal conductivity of the film, and Joule heat are employed to investigate effects of substrate and thermal properties on the intrinsic stability and quenching recovery. To consider the thermal boundary resistance between film and substrate, an interfacial-layer model (ILM) with very low diffusivity and an acoustic mismatch model (AMM) are employed. Results show that the thermal boundary resistance influences strongly the intrinsic stability. Thermal boundary resistance increases intrinsic stability if the thermal conductivity of the substrate or the disturbance energy is large. Higher Biot numbers and thermal conductivity ratios of film to substrate in longitudinal direction influence stability favorably. We demonstrate also that operation of a film/substrate system, such as YBCO/MgO, is either intrinsically stable or irrecoverably unstable.

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Abstract  

Information about the kinetics and thermal decomposition of dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) is required for safety concerns, due to its wide applications and accident cases. To understand the inherent hazards during DCPO manufacturing, we selected various concentrations in different stages and analyzed them by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). We evaluated thermokinetic parameters to set up a simple, but comprehensive kinetic model, with various tests conducted at heating rates of 2, 4, 6 and 10C min-1 . Subsequently, we established a more efficient, resource-effective, and cost-effective model of safety evaluation for DCPO with different concentrations, according to thermokinetic parameters, such as activation energy E a is 125.35 kJ mol-1 , frequency factor k 0 is 3.12410 12 s-1 , reaction order n is 0.9 and heat of decomposition ΔH is 750.52 J g-1 for DCPO 99 mass%.

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A detail study of distribution, host range, and seasonal pattern of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in Yunnan Province was conducted in 2004–2006. The pest is distributed throughout the province and was found in 22 out of 25 widely spaced locations surveyed. WFT was found feeding on 45 species of vegetables, ornamentals, and weeds in the province. Seasonal pattern of WFT on vegetables planted in open field and inside greenhouses was similar and, with exception of minor local differences, did not differ from information generated elsewhere. These findings may provide some useful data for the management of this and possibly other thrips pests in Yunnan.

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Nuclear Techniques in National Security Studies on Contraband Detection

IEC-based neutron generator for security inspection system

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: G. H. Miley, L. Wu, and H. J. Kim

Summary  

The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate all off-site radiological response assistance to state and local governments, in the event of a major radiological emergency in the United States. The FRMAC is established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, to coordinate all Federal assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of radiological environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, quality assurance, and dose assessment. During an emergency response, the initial analytical data is provided by portable field instrumentation. As incident responders scale up their response based on the seriousness of the incident, local analytical assets and mobile laboratories add additional capability and capacity. During the intermediate phase of the response, data quality objectives and measurement quality objectives are more rigorous. These higher objectives will require the use of larger laboratories, with greater capacity and enhanced capabilities. These labs may be geographically distant from the incident, which will increase sample management challenges. This paper addresses emergency radioanalytical capability and capacity and its utilization during FRMAC operations.

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Abstract  

We used - coincidence spectrometry to investigate the possible presence of a meteoritical component in 27 samples of South African diamictites. Recently, several studies have suggested that some tillites/diamictites may represent impact breccias, but a petrographical study by our group found no evidence for the presence of impact-characteristic shocked minerals. The siderophile elements, such as Cr, Co, Ni, and, especially, the platinum group elements, have high abundances in meteorites, but low abundances in terrestrial crustal rocks. The Ir content of the diamictites was measured with the new iridium coincidence spectrometer (ICS) at the University of Vienna, with detection limits of around 0.02 ppb. No enrichments in the contents of Ir and other siderophile elements compared to average crustal concentrations were found; thus, no unequivocal evidence for an impact origin of these diamictites of the South African Dwyka Group can be documented.

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Abstract  

Kinetics of CaO desulphurization reaction and the effects of alkali carbonates on it have been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. A grain model was applied successfully to describe the kinetic behavior of the reactions. The activation energy of surface reaction and that of the product layer diffusion were determined by using the model. It was found that the overall desulphurization rate was controlled initially by surface chemical reaction and, in a later stage, by product layer diffusion. Addition of alkali carbonates can decrease the activation energy of the surface chemical reaction, with increasing effectiveness in the order of potassium, sodium and lithium. Such a property of alkali carbonates has also been demonstrated on a raw coal. The process is discussed in terms of a working mechanism of solid-state ionic diffusion.

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Abstract  

The exothermic decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in cumene liquid was characterized by isothermal microcalorimetry, involving the thermal activity monitor (TAM). Unlike the exothermic behaviors previously determined from an adiabatic calorimeter, such as the vent sizing package 2 (VSP2), or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal curves revealed that CHP undergoes an autocatalytic decomposition detectable between 75 and 90°C. Previous studies have shown that the CHP in a temperature range higher than 100°C conformed to an n th order reaction rate model. CHP heat of decomposition and autocatalytic kinetics behavior were measured and compared with previous reports, and the methodology and the advantages of using the TAM to obtain an autocatalytic model by curve fitting are reported. With various autocatalytic models, such as the Prout-Tompkins equation and the Avrami-Erofeev rate law, the best curve fit among models was also investigated and proposed.

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Abstract  

Multitracers were prepared by 80 MeV/A 12 C irradiation on thick gold foil at Heavy Ion Research Facility, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou, China. The bulk gold was removed quantitatively from the multitracer solutions with a MIBK-HCl solution.

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Enteritis is a serious problem for patients having received abdominal radiation. This study was to investigate whether zinc affected intestinal injury induced by the radiation. ICR mice were divided randomly into three groups and treated with one of three different compounds. Two of the compounds contained zinc (gluconate and amino acid chelated with bovin prostate extract) and one was water. One week after receiving the treatment, they were irradiated with 6 or 10 Gy at the abdominal region. One, 2, and 4 weeks after the irradiation the animals were sacrificed to examine the histological changes in the intestinal mucosa. The apoptotic cell numbers were found to be significantly higher after irradiation. The number of the apoptotic cells increased with increasing radiation doses. In this study we found that zinc appears to have the capability to lower the occurrence of apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa, thus protecting intestinal mucosa from injuries. Based on this finding, it would be reasonable to suggest that zinc could be used as food supplements in patients with cancer receiving radiotherapy in a hope to reduce radiation induced toxicity.

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