Certain macrofungi species have been used for medical purposes and as nutrients since the old times. The present study aims to determine and compare total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) values, and Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Ni levels in Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw.) P. Karst samples gathered in Balıkesir province Kazdağı National Park and Yalova province Çınarcık Hasan Baba Woods in Turkey. TAS, TOS, and OSI values of mushroom samples were measured with Rel Assay kits. Mushroom heavy metal content was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and wet decomposition procedure. In the samples collected from Çınarcık district, OSI values were 0.99±0.03, while in the samples collected from Kazdağı National Park, OSI values were 0.13±0.01. Fe content in the samples collected from Çınarcık district were 265.9±70.5 ppm, while Fe content in the samples collected from Kazdağı National Park were 31.31±1.43 ppm. As a result, it is considered that the mushrooms could be used as antioxidant source. Furthermore, it could be argued that as a result of the increase in heavy metal levels, the production of oxidants increases in living organisms, which in turn increases the oxidative stress index.
Lichens are symbiotic associations that are formed by fungi and algae or cyanobacteria. The number of lichen species investigated pharmaceutically is still very low at present. The present study aims to determine the antioxidant activities, antibacterial activities, DNA protective activities, and oxidative stress status of Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Parmelina tiliacea (Hoffm.) Hale, and Umbilicaria decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. Lichens were extracted with ethanol in the Soxhlet device. The DPPH method was used to determine antioxidant activities. DNA protective activity was determined using pBR322 supercoil DNA. Antibacterial activity was determined with dilution test on 5 different species of bacteria (Enterocossus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus). Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were defined with Rel Assay Diagnostics kits. It was observed that DPPH free radical scavenging activities in lichen ethanol extracts increased with increasing concentration. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in B. fuscescens and the lowest activity was determined in U. decussata. It was also determined that the ethanol extracts of all lichen samples had DNA-protective activity. The highest antibacterial activity was detected in B. fuscescens, while the lowest activity was detected in U. decussata. It was determined that B. fuscescens had the highest oxidative stress index and U. decussata had the lowest value. It appears that the ethanol extracts of the lichen samples utilized in the study could be used as an alternative and complementary resource in medical treatment.
In this study, antioxidant, oxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities of Asparagus acutifolius L. and Asparagus officinalis L., known for their nutritional properties, were determined. In this context, methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of plants were obtained. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined using Rel Assay kits. Antimicrobial activities of plant extracts were determined against the test microorganisms using the agar dilution method. Antiproliferative activity was tested on the lung cancer cell line A549. As a result of the studies, it has been determined that the plant species have high antioxidant potential. In addition, it was observed that the antifungal potentials of plant extracts are high. Antiproliferative activity was determined to be at high level in both plant species. As a result, it has been determined that A. acutifolius and A. officinalis have medical potential and can be used as natural agents in pharmacological designs.