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  • Author or Editor: H. Aki x
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Abstract  

Isothermal titration microcalorimetry has been applied to investigate the compatibility testing of risperidone oral solution with soft-drinks and the interaction with tea tannin such as (–)-epigallocatechin, (–)-epicatechin, theaflavin and their gallates. In aqueous solution, risperidone was exothermically bound to tea tannin with binding affinity (103–104 M–1), small enthalpy and entropy changes reflecting van der Waal’s interaction to form an insoluble complex at 1:1 molar ratio. The heat effect of risperidone titrated into soft-drinks containing tannin was exothermic and proportional to the quantity of the complex. While, no significant heat effect was found for risperidone titrated into a pet-bottled water and an infusion of parched barley without tea tannin. These results were agreed with stability testing of risperidone in some soft-drinks by HPLC method.

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Abstract  

The antibacterial action of amoxicillin (AMPC) and the inclusion complexes of AMPC with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD, respectively) to Escherichia coli B (E. coli) was evaluated by isothermal titration microcalorimetry and by petri-dish bioassay method. The effects of the compounds on produced heat during the exponential phase of the E. coli growing were measured and the growing rate constants of the cells was calculated from the power-time (p-t) curve before and after the treatment with AMPC. Results from the both methods showed that the antibacterial activity became stronger in the following order: AMPC-βCD > AMPC-γCD ≈ AMPC-αCD > AMPC only.

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Abstract  

A multiple-site competitive model has been developed to evaluate quantitatively the equilibrium competition of drugs that bind to multiple classes of binding sites on human serum albumin (HSA). The equations, which are based on the multiple-class binding site model, assume that competition exists at individual sites, that the binding parameters for drug or drug competitor pertain to individual sites, and also that the binding parameters for drug or competitor at any given site are independent of drug or competitor bound at other sites. For the drug-competitor pairs, ethacrynic acid (EA) -caproic acid (C6), -lauric acid (C12), and -palmitic acid (C16), the reaction heat of EA binding to HSA was measured in the absence and the presence of fatty acids at the molar ratio of 3:1 with HSA at pH 7.4 and 37°C by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. The calorimetric titration data induced by the presence of fatty acids were directly compaired to the computer simulation curves by the corresponding multiple-site competititve models, which were precedently calculated from binding parameters of EA and fatty acids. In the case of EA-C12 or -C16 competitive binding, EA binding at the first and the second classes of binding sites on HSA were instantaneously inhibited by C12 or C16, resulting that the binding constant of the first class of binding sites of EA were decreased and that the second class of binding sites on HSA entirely disappeared. In the competition between EA and C6, the first class of binding sites of EA was diminished by C6, resulting in the decrease of the binding constants and the number of binding sites in the first class of EA, whereas, the second class of binding sites was unaffected. The multiple-site competitive model assuming site-site competition could be directly comparable to the calorimetric data and be suitable to account for the competitive processes for drugs bound to the multiple-class of binding sites on HSA.

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Abstract  

The interactions of benzalkonium chloride (BC)with components of stratum corneum, a model system of intercellular lipids in human stratum corneum and homogenized rat stratum corneum were characterized in terms of thermodynamics at pH 7.5 and 37C. BC was strongly bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with higher affinities (105~106 M-1) than to any other components of the stratum corneum by hydrophobic interaction and ionic interaction, respectively. BC binding to the model system of intercellular lipids significantly decreased only in the absence of cholesterol. It is indicated that cholesterol and its derivatives play an important role in the penetration and/or accumulation of BC in stratum corneum.

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Abstract  

Two different types (structures) of inclusion complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry between barbiturates and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCyD) were realized in aqueous solution using isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular dynamics simulation. The first type of complex with a higher association constant was entropy driven and the substituent R 2 was inserted into the HPCyD cavity by hydrophobic interaction. The barbituric acid ring contributed to the second type of complex, which was characterized by large negative values of ΔH and small positive ΔS reflecting van der Waals interaction and/or hydrogen bonding formation between the hetero atoms in the barbituric acid ring and the secondary hydroxyl groups of HPCyD.

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Abstract  

The complexation of β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMPC), ampicillin (ABPC) and benzylpenicillin (PCG), with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was studied at various pH values using microcalorimetry, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and molecular dynamic simulation. In the strong acid solution, two different types of inclusion complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry, Complex I with a phenyl ring of β-lactam antibiotics penetrated into the cavity of HPCD and Complex II with a penam included in the cavity, were formed by hydrophobic interaction, and Complex II was more stable than Complex I. In aqueous solution at pH≥4.5, only Complex I was formed, where the penam of PCG was more deeply penetrated into the cavity to keep it stable than those of AMPC and ABPC. The charged carboxyl-group on the penam was less affinity to form Complex II.

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Abstract  

The formation of inclusion complexes between amoxicillin (AMPC) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was investigated by isothermal microcalorimetry and molecular dynamics simulation to evaluate the inhibitory effects on the degradation of AMPC in aqueous solutions at various pH. The process depended significantly on the ionic species of AMPC in the solution. In a strong acid solution, cationic AMPC and HPCD formed two different types of inclusion complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry: the first-type had a high association constant K 1 of 4.0-8.0103 M-1 and included the penam ring of AMPC in the HPCD cavity (Mode I), while the second-type with a K 2 of 1.0103 M-1 contained the phenyl group of AMPC (Mode II). Furthermore, a complex with a 1:2 (AMPC:HPCD) stoichiometry was realized in a two-step reaction and was characterized by a smaller K 1:2of 4.0102 M-1 and larger negative enthalpy and entropy changes than the complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Since the β-lactam ring of AMPC could be protected by inclusion with HPCD in the 1:2 complex and Mode I of 1:1 complexes, the degradation of AMPC in the presence of HPCD was approximately four times slower than in its absence at pH 1.2 and 37C. In weak acid and neutral solutions, zwitterionic AMPC and HPCD formed only one type of inclusion complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry, where the phenyl group was included (Mode II). AMPC was very stable in these solutions (t 1/2=226 h at pH=6.0) and there is little significant difference in the degradation rate between complexed AMPC and uncomplexed AMPC. Thus, the results indicated that the inclusion complex of AMPC with HPCD, effectively increasing the stability of AMPC in a strong acidic solution like that the stomach, would be useful for eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection and as a drug delivery system.

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