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Based on the known GA20-oxidase (GA20ox) cDNAs of barley and wheat, oligonucleotide primers were designed to isolate GA20ox genes from genomic DNA of Dasypyrum villosum. A total of 19 clones were obtained. Each of them contained an open reading frame encoding a putative 40-KDa protein of 359 amino acid residues. Twenty-one SNPs and 4 InDels were found and could divide the 19 sequences into 2 classes, designated as DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2, respectively. Q-PCR analyses showed that both DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 were in leaf blade, leaf sheath, stem, eustipes, root and developing spike. Similar expression levels were found between DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 in three stages. The total expression levels of DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 presented downtrend in leaf blade and ascend in stem, eustipes and developing spike along with the development of plants, respectively. However, they were firstly increased and then decreased in root from seeding stage to heading stage. These results revealed that the gene expression profile of DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 closely related to the growth and development of D. villosum.

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Samarium-153-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate), for its promising biological properties, has been proved as a palliating therapeutic agent for boné cancer in human beings. In this article, we present the results on synthesis and structure analysis of Samarium-153-EDTMP. In a basic medium,153Sm-EDTMP can be readily prepared with a complexing yield not less than 98%, and it is confirmed that the ratio of the ligand to Sm is 11, and the charge of153Sm-EDTMP is negative two.

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A rapid and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-multi-stage/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MRM-MS/MS) method has been developed for simultaneous quantification of salvianolic acid B and tanshinone IIA of salvia tropolone tablets in dog plasma. This was achieved by performing quantification using the MRM acquisition with two channels of MRM-MS/MS and MS full scan for more accuracy qualitative results, and the fragmentation transitions of m/z 295→249, 191 for tanshinone IIA and m/z 297→279, 251 for IS in positive mode, m/z 717→519, 321 for salvianolic acid B and m/z 295→267, 239 for IS in negative mode were selected. The UPLC separation was achieved within 3 min in a single UPLC run. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration range of 10 pg/mL−1 ng/mL for tanshinone IIA and 100 pg/mL−1 for salvianolic acid B. Lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 10 pg/mL and 100 pg/mL for tanshinone IIA and salvianolic acid B, respectively. The inter-day and intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) in all samples were less than 8.21%, and the recoveries were over 85.9% for both tanshinone IIA and salvianolic acid B. The two channels of MRM with MS full scan approach could provide both qualitative and quantitative results without the need for repetitive analyses and resulted in the reduction of further confirmation experiments and analytical time. The pharmacokinetic study of the two active components of salvia tropolone tablets following oral gavage administration of dogs was thus explored with this method.

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The characterization of different sized TiO2 (25 nm, 80 nm, and 155 nm) was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the micro-distributions of TiO2 in the olfactory bulb of mice after nasal inhalation were investigated by microbeam SRXRF mapping techniques. The results show that TiO2 particles can be translocated to the olfactory bulb through the olfactory nerve system after inhalation. The distributions of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the olfactory bulb were also studied.

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It is well demonstrated that wheat-rye 1BL/1RS translocated chromosome leads to some valuable novel traits such as disease resistance, high yield and functional stay-green after anthesis. To understand the physiological mechanism of 1BL/1RS translocation responsible for osmotic stress, two wheat cultivars, CN12 and CN17, carrying the translocated chromosome and MY11 without the translocated chromosome were employed in the study. During 5-day osmotic stress, fresh weight inhibition, chlorophyll content, soluble protein content, MDA concentration, antioxidant enzymes activity and free polyamines content were examined. CN12 and CN17, especially cultivar CN17, registered greater biomass and minor oxidative damage compared with their wheat parent. Meanwhile, the concentration of Spd and Spm in CN17 was significantly higher than the others. In addition, we found a positive correlation of fresh weight inhibition (FWI) and Put concentration, and a negative one with the parameters (Spd + Spm): Put ratio, indicating the importance of higher polyamine (Spd and Spm) accumulation on the adaptation to osmotic stress. Therefore, we proposed that the accumulation of higher polyamines (Spd and Spm) should play an important role on the adaptation of 1BL/1RS translocation lines to osmotic stress and might be important factors for the origin of novel traits introduced by 1BL/1RS.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Ji-Bin Li, Anise M.S. Wu, Li-Fen Feng, Yang Deng, Jing-Hua Li, Yu-Xia Chen, Jin-Chen Mai, Phoenix K.H. Mo, and Joseph T.F. Lau


Background and aims

Problematic online social networking use is prevalent among adolescents, but consensus about the instruments and their optimal cut-off points is lacking. This study derived an optimal cut-off point for the validated Online Social Networking Addiction (OSNA) scale to identify probable OSNA cases among Chinese adolescents.


A survey recruited 4,951 adolescent online social networking users. Latent profile analysis (LPA) and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were applied to the validated 8-item OSNA scale to determine its optimal cut-off point.


The 3-class model was selected by multiple criteria, and validated in a randomly split-half subsample. Accordingly, participants were categorized into the low risk (36.4%), average risk (50.4%), and high risk (13.2%) groups. The highest risk group was regarded as “cases” and the rest as “non-cases”, serving as the reference standard in ROC analysis, which identified an optimal cut-off point of 23 (sensitivity: 97.2%, specificity: 95.2%). The cut-off point was used to classify participants into positive (probable case: 17:0%) and negative groups according to their OSNA scores. The positive group (probable cases) reported significantly longer duration and higher intensity of online social networking use, and higher prevalence of Internet addiction than the negative group.


The classification strategy and results are potentially useful for future research that measure problematic online social networking use and its impact on health among adolescents. The approach can facilitate research that requires cut-off points of screening tools but gold standards are unavailable.

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