In this study, taxonomic relationship of some Iranian species of Alyssum sect. Gamosepalums was explored in terms of anatomical aspects. Transversal sections of peduncle belonging to 8 species of Alyssum sect. Gamosepalum have studied by qualitative and quantitative characters. The vascular bundle type was bicollateral in all species. In sum, anatomical properties were evaluated, and the two series of the section was supported and confirmed on the basis of these properties.
This study was carried out in the rocky forests of Dodangeh, south of Sari, an area extended as a narrow strip from east to west in the heights of Hyrcanian forests, with the area of ca 2,000 ha and the altitude of 2,500-2,950 m a.s.l. Regarding vegetation history, Dodangeh is a refuge for Betula pendula Roth. This species together with Corylus avellana L. are the first ones formed a plant community in Hyrcanian region since the glaciation of the Tertiary period and gradual retrogression of conifers. A number of 181 plant species belonging to 52 families were identified through sampling of 20 relevés of the size 400 m2. Out of these, 17% were endemic of Hyrcanian and Irano-Turanian regions including four species viz. Aconitum iranshahrii Renz., Cortusa mathioli subsp. iranica, Delphinium elbursense var. elbursense and Doronicum wendelboii which could be found nowhere else in the world. Querco macrantherae-Betuletum pendulae association is recorded in the Hyrcanian and Euro-Siberian regions for the first time. Chorological studies of Querco macrantherae-Betuletum pendulae showed that the elements of Irano-Turanian, Euro-Siberian and Hyrcanian regions are more than those of the other existing vegetational regions in the area. Dynamic processes of this association and its restoration were also considered in the study.
A complete, up to date checklist of Alyssum species reported from Iran is presented in this review. The distribution of these species was considered in Iran and in the adjacent countries, too. Additional records were obtained from Flora Iranica, Flora of Turkey and other references. In Iran some species (e. g., Alyssum hezarmasjedensis, A. mozaffarianii, A. persicum, A. polycladum, A. stipitatum, A. turgidum) have very restricted distribution. Iran is the second important locality for the following species: A. anatolicum, A. contemptum, A. filiforme, A. iranicum, A. lycaonicum, A. niveum, A. penjwinense. The other Alyssum species are widespread in Iran and in the adjacent countries.
Ferula microcolea (Boiss.) Boiss. is an endemic plant in Iran that some of its habitats have been destroyed in recent decades. Since the bioclimatic variables which determine its potential distribution, are poorly defined, a specific analysis is needed. In this study, the species distribution modelling was used for reaching these goals: (i) identifying the bioclimatic factors that constrain the distribution of this species in Iran, (ii) generating a potential habitat suitability map for F. microcolea using Maxent (iii) determining the high suitable areas where this species could be present (iv) evaluating the final model. In all, 66 records of F. microcolea in Iran were used as the occurrence data. Nineteen bioclimatic variables were obtained from the WorldClim database and collinear variables were removed in a sequential manner with regard to the ecological knowledge of the plant. The maxent parameters were optimised with ENMeval R package. For evaluating the performance of the Maxent model, the Area under curve value (AUC) was calculated. The results showed that the model performance was excellent. Analysis of variable contribution demonstrated that the distribution of this species is most influenced by the Annual Mean Temperature. We revealed that the area about 22,005.5 km2 is highly suitable for F. microcolea that is principally located in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Although this region is rich in biodiversity, greater focus should be paid to its conservation. Our findings provide a scientific basis for the habitats conservation of this species in Iran.