The solvent extraction behaviour of tracer zirconium in the TTA-xylene system has been studied. By studying the effect of
TTA concentration, extraction time, and acid concentration for HNO3 and HCl, optimum conditions of zirconium extraction are determined. It is found that zirconium is 98% extracted in one minute
of extraction with 0.5M TTA in xylene from an 8M HNO3 solution. A plot of 1g D versus 1g [TTA] gives a straight line with a slope of 2. This suggests that the zirconium ion is
hydrolyzed and is present as ZrO2+, zirconyl ion, in aqueous solutions.
Isomer yield ratios of130Sb,132Sb,134I and136I isomers formed in the thermal neutron fission of235U have been calculated from our previous experimental studies that led to the identification of these species. In those studies the iodine and antimony fractions formed in fission were rapidly separated and the decay of -rays belonging to each isomer pair were followed using Ge(Li) detectors and a multichannel analyzer. The isomer ratios were calculated from growth and decay considerations of these -rays. The results are compared with the recently published values obtained with an on-line isotope separator, those from LOHENGRIN, and those from model calculations. Angular momenta of fission fragments corresponding to the measured isomer yields have also been calculated.
The210Pb and137Cs profiles of sediment cores from two locations in southern Spain, three locations in southern Turkey and two locations in northern Cyprus were determined by direct -ray spectroscopy. Sedimentation rates were derived for all locations using the210Pb data. The rates range from 1.39±0.12 cm · y–1 (0.50±0.04 g · cm–2 · y–1) to 0.08±0.01 cm · y–1 (0.039±0.003 g · cm–2 · y–1). Except for one core, the137Cs profiles were also used to compute sedimentation rates. The results are in good agreement with those of210Pb values. The results of the Constant Initial Concenration and Constant Rate of Supply dating models are in good agreement with each other. The flux of unsupported210Pb varies between 0.11±0.03 to 0.74±0.01 pCi · cm–2. The average depositional flux was found to be considerably lower for cores from the Eastern Mediterranean.
The sorption behavior of Ba2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ ions on alumina, kaolinite and magnesite have been investigated using the batch method.60Co,65Zn and133Ba were used as radiotracers. The mineral samples were separated into different particle size fractions using an Andreasen Pipette. The particle sizes used in the sorption experiments were all less than 38 m. Synthetic groundwaters were used which had compositions similar to those from the regions where the minerals were recovered. The samples were shaken with a lateral shaker at 190 rpm, the phases were separated by centrifuging and adioactivity counted using a NaI(Tl) detector. Kinetic studies indicated that sorption onto the minerals took place in two stages with the slower process dominating. The highest sorption was observed on alumina. Both Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich type isotherms were found to describe the sorption process well. The distribution ratio,Rd was found to be a function of the liquid volume to solid mass ratio. TheRd's for sorption on binary mixtures of minerals were experimentally determined and compared with those predicted fromRd values of each individual mineral.
Studies of finer details in mass and charge distribution fission leads to a better understanding of the fission process. Experimental determination of independent and cumulative yields using radiochemical techniques as well as mass spectrometers and fission product recoil separators form the basis of such studies. It has been established that closed shells as well as an even number of nucleons influence both mass and charge distributions. The magnitudes of these effects may be estimated from existing experimental yield data and various fission models. Using our measurements of several fission yields and those existing in the literature we have calculated even-odd proton and neutron effects for various low energy fissioning systems. Where enough data existed, direct calculations were made, whereas for other cases the Zp-model of WAHL has been used. It is found that the even-odd proton effect is well established and pronounced in thermal neutron fission of235U and233U. Lesser effects were found for reactor neutron induced fission of232Th, thermal neutron fission of239Pu and spontaneous fission of245Cm and249Cf. No effect seems to exist in the thermal neutron fission of241Pu and the spontaneous fission of252Cf. The even-odd neutron effect is found to be much lower than the corresponding proton effect in235U and233U fissions and is nonexistent in the rest of the fissioning systems.
Batch method was used to investigate the sorption behavior of radioiodine on organic rich soil, alumina, chlorite-illite clay mixture and bentonite.131I was used as tracer. The grain sizes of the samples used were all below 38 m. A rather slow kinetics was observed for the adsorption of radioiodine on organic rich soil. The distribution ratio increased with increasing solution/solid (V/m) ratio, and the contact time. The pH of the synthetic groundwater did not change the distribution ratio appreciably. The soil biomass however, showed a striking effect on the adsorption of radioiodine. Among the clay minerals, the highest distribution ratio value was found for chlorite-illite clay mixture. All the values were however well below those of the organic rich soil. The sorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich types isotherms. Means energies of adsorption, as well as the affinity ratios of the sorption sites to iodine and chlorine were calculated.
In this study, the sorption behavior of two important contaminants, phenol and radioactive cesium (137Cs), onto surfactant modified insolubilized humic acid (SMIA) were investigated as a function of time, sorbate concentration
utilizing the radiotracer method and UV–Vis spectroscopy. Phenol sorption process was well described by both Freundlich and
Tempkin type isotherms, and cesium sorption was described by Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms. It was found that
SMIA adsorbs both cations and phenolic substances. Kinetic studies indicated that adsorption behavior of phenol obey the pseudo
second order rate law. FTIR spectroscopic technique was used to understand the structural changes during modification process
The sorption of Ba2+ ion on natural kaolinite and chlorite-illite clays was investigated at different initial concentrations and temperatures
using the radiotracer method. The sorption data were well described by Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. Ba2+ sorption on both clays showed an exothermic behavior with ΔH° (kJ/mol) values being -7 and -5 for sorption on kaolinite and chlorite illite mixed clay, respectively. The ΔG° values indicate that the sorption was spontaneous with sorption energies corresponding to ion-exchange type sorption. X-ray
diffraction studies showed that no significant change in the matrix of the clays occurred upon Ba2+ sorption.
The sorption behavior of Cs+ on kaolinite, chlorite-illite, and bentonite clays as a function of time, cation concentration, and temperature was studied using the radiotracer method. Sorption data were well represented by Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich type isotherms. Bentonite was found to have the highest sorption capacity and the highest exchange affinity to Cs+. In all three cases Cs+ sorption was found to be exothermic with DH° (kJ/mol) –13, –8, –19 and DS° (J/mol.K) –15, 31, and –3 for kaolinite, chlorite-illite, and bentonite, respectively. Negative DG° values were obtained in all cases, indicating the spontaneity of sorption. The magnitudes of DG° suggest that ion exchange is the primary sorption mechanism.