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The science revolution, the paradigm change and the Ortega hypothesis on the role of average scientists are discussed in the context of catchup of developing countries. The relative weight of scientific fields is compared between countries as revealing their values on science. Finding some significant difference between countries, the role of developing countries is discussed in view of a possible science revolution, the paradigm change and the Ortega hypothesis.
Articles on sea-related topics such as ocean, fishery, crimes at sea, law of the sea, distress at sea and others were counted for journals in the fields supposedly comprising sea-related specialties such as policy/political science, law and its enforcement, agriculture, transportation, and operational research. The number of such articles was found very few in all the surveyed journals. The follow-up search was made for other journals of the same specialties, obtaining the same result. Further, the same result was found to hold for other issues of the journals published in different years: That is, this phenomenon was found stable for years. Its reasons were discussed, and some interpretation and their policy implications were presented.
The right tail of the Bradford distribution has been considered to be straight or drooping. This paper reports cases in which the right tail is rising upward, explains and verifies conditions of its occurrences, interpretes it and proposes its application to evaluation and forecasting of technological development at the basic research stage.
The references cited by papers in the four volumes of international journal titledMathematical Programming (Math. Prog.) published in 1997 were surveyed. The most frequently cited journal was found to be Math. Prog. itself. Generally, the cited references were found to be heavily concentrated on particular journals or books by particular publishers specialised in particular specialties. Despite the historical background having originated from mathematics and economics and having developed together with the development of business administration, works in these specialties were found to be rarely cited. The research field of mathematical programming was hereby judged to have formed its own closed specialty, having rather isolated itself from others in a self-sufficient way. Its shift from economic, regional or business planning to the experiment design or the engineering design was observed.
Problems of scientometrics depend on in which phase of research or development each scientometric activity is operating. So, discussions mut be very, specific. The golden age when scientoetrics was little is gone. Now the age has come when scientometrics must be big by being sponsored by policy makeers. However, scientometrics should consider the public around the policy makers and thus grow up to bigger scientometrics.
The applicability of the Bradford law to the R&D expending of firms is examined and its usefulness is proved. It successfully identifies core firms, peripheral firms and minor firms. It also provides a measure to evaluate the degree of R&D concentration to a small number of firms.
This is to assess the applicability of the Bradford distribution to an international science-technology indicators problem. The Bradford distribution which has been empirically known to be valid for the number of scientific articles on a given research topic across journals is applied to the number of scientific articles in a given research field across nations. The Bradford distribution is herein found to provide information of the degree of scientific-technological inequitability between advanced and latecomer nations and, more characteristically, a method for classification of nations into core, middle and peripheral classes with respect to their S&T selfreliance. This may suggest the usefulness of the Bradford distribution for anylsis of international science-technology indicators. Some theoretical discussions on mathematical properties of the Bradford distribution are given.
Technological resources are shown to be more concentrated to a few firms than economic wealth. To explain such concentrations, the self-multiplication process with cycle between the innovative and stagnant ages is modeled in terms of the stochastic process. This yields a family of new distributions which is named the ultra-Yule distribution. This new distribution which is quite skew is show to fit the real distributions of patents and of R & D expenditure in the Japanese industry better than the Yule distribution. The properties of this new distribution is discussed.