This study investigated the influences of drying method (oven-, freeze-, and shade-drying) and extraction solvent (ethanol and water) on the bioactivities of Cirsium setidens. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging ability, anti-diabetic activity was determined by the inhibitory activity of two enzymes: α-glucosidase and α-amylase, while anti-proliferation activity was assessed by MTT assay of three human cancer cell lines (KB, A549, and PC-3). Results indicated that bioactivities were extremely affected by solvent; water extracts contained more phenolics, exhibited strong anti-diabetic effect, but no activity of anti-proliferation, while the ethanolic extracts rich in flavonoids showed profound DPPH radical scavenging and anti-proliferation ability, yet low activity of antidiabetes. Among the drying methods, freeze-drying extracts preserved more flavonoids and exhibited better activity of anti-proliferation, while shade-drying extracts contained higher phenolics and showed stronger activity on antidiabetes, oven-drying gave the lowest content of phenolics. Hence, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects were positively related to phenolic content, meanwhile an extremely significant correlation coefficient had been found between anti-proliferation activity and flavonoid content, it can be concluded that drying method and extraction solvent affect bioactivities by phenolic and flavonoid contents.
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder has been synthesized from metal nitrate solutions using the EDTA-gel method with
different nitric acid/EDTA ratios. It was found that the thermal decomposition of the precursor was strongly affected by the
nitric acid/EDTA ratio, the amount of sample, the atmosphere, and the heating rate. Crystallization of the perovskite PZT
phase initiated at external temperatures as low as 250°C, as a result of the exothermic decomposition reaction of the nitrate-EDTA
complexes. Possible reaction schemes are suggested and discussed to describe the thermal decomposition of PZT-EDTA precursors
under different experimental conditions.
The refinement of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from Hippophae rhamnoides L. seed oil was carried out by molecular distillation (MD) using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite rotate design was used in order to optimize the experimental parameters: distilling temperature and feed flow. The optimal MD conditions were determined and the quadratic response surfaces were drawn from the mathematical models. The results suggested that the distilling temperature and feed flow significantly affected both the UFA content and oil yield in the two models. The optimum conditions for refining UFA were: distilling temperature 107.5 °C and feed flow 1 ml min−1. Optimal values predicted by RSM for the UFA content and oil yield were 82.38% and 62.59%, respectively. Close agreement between experimental and predicted values was obtained.
The concentration of 8 REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in 17 species of plants and their host soil, which were collected from a rare earth ore area located in the south of China, have been determined by INAA. The chondritic normalized REE patterns for different parts of plants (e.g., leaf stem and root) and their host soils were studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of REE for most plants in the sampling area were elevated. Particularly, the leaves of the fern (Dicranopteris dichotoma) contain extremely high concentration of the total REE (675–3358 g/g) Generally, these REE distribution patterns in every part of plants were very similar and reflected the characteristics of their host soils. However, the chondritic normalized REE patterns in some plants relative to the host soil revealed obvious fractionation, such as the depletion of the heavy REE (for fernCitrus reticulata andBrassia campestris), the heavy REE enrichment (forCamellia sinensis, Camellia oleifera andZiziphus) and the Ce positive anomaly (forGardenia jasminoides).
Authors:Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. Li, H. Xiao, and Z. Chai
The contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in various plant species taken from a rare earth ore area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For a given plant, the REE patterns in root, leaf and host soil are different from each other. The REE distribution characteristics in roots of various species are very similar and resemble those in the surface water. The results of this study suggest that there is no significant fractionation between the REEs during their uptake by the plant roots from soil solution. However, the variation of the relative abundance of individual REE occurs in the process of transportation and deposition of REEs in plants.
Biochemical techniques, including pH variation, outsalting, ultracentrifugation, gel filtration chromatography and electrophoresis, etc., have been employed together with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to study the rare earth elements (REE) bound proteins in the natural plant fern,Dicranopteris dichitoma. INAA was also used to identify whether the proteins were bound firmly with REE. The results obtained show that two REE bound proteins (RBP-I and RBP-II) have been separated. The molecular weight of RBP-I on Sephadex G-200 gel column is about 8·105 Daltons and that of RBP-II is less than 12,400 Daltons, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE of the two proteins shows that they mainly have two protein subunits with MW 14,100 and 38,700 Daltons. They are probably conjugated proteins, glycoproteins with different glyco-units.
Authors:H. Wang, S. Ambe, N. Takematsu, and F. Ambe
Using a radioactive multitracer and model acid rain (HCl or H2SO4 solution), batch experiments were performed to examine the pH effect on the adsorption-desorption equilibrium of 16 elements
on soils as a model study of an acid rain effect. Kaolin, black soil (original and with organic matter almost removed) and
Kureha soil (original and with organic matter almost removed) were used as adsorbents. Characteristic dependence on the pH
value of the suspension was observed for the adsorption of the elements on kaolin and the soils. The results of this model
study indicate that acid rain decreases the retention of cations, while it increases or does not change the adsorption of
anions on soils. Organic matter in soils has a positive effect on the extent of adsorption of most elements investigated.
Polyphenols in Chinese Kushui rose (Rosa sertata × Rosa rugosa) leaves were first extracted and analysed in this study. Among four fractions (ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water layer) of crude extracts, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging activity, and the n-butanol fraction exhibited the maximum components in composition. On-line HPLC-ABTS•+ analysis indicated that there were more than 30 antioxidant compounds from Chinese Kushui rose leaves. The identified polyphenols could be classified into quercetin derivatives, gallic acid derivatives, and proanthocyanidins. Gallic acid was the most antioxidative compound.
The complex of [Tb2(o-MBA)6(PHEN)2] (o-MBA: o-methylbenzoate and PHEN:1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy.
The thermal behavior of [Tb2(o-MBA)6(PHEN)2] in dynamic nitrogen atmosphere was investigated by TG-DTG techniques. The thermal decomposition process of the [Tb2(o-MBA)6(PHEN)2] occurred in three consecutive stages at Tp 294, 427 and 512C. The kinetic parameters and mechanisms of first decomposition stage from analysis of the TG-DTG curves
were obtained by the Malek method.
Authors:J.-J. Zhang, R.-F. Wang, J.-B. Li, H.-M. Liu, and H.-F. Yang
The thermal decomposition of Eu2(BA)6(bipy)2 (BA=C2H5N–2, benzoate; bipy=C10H8N2, 2,2'-bipyridine)and its kinetics were studied under the non-isothermal condition by TG-DTG, IR and SEM methods. The kinetic
parameters were obtained from analysis of the TG-DTG curves by the Achar method, the Madhusudanan-Krishnan-Ninan (MKN) method,
the Ozawa method and the Kissinger method. The most probable mechanism function was suggested by comparing the kinetic parameters.
The kinetic equation for the first stage can be expressed as: dα/dt=Aexp(–E/RT)3(1–α)2/3.