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Abstract  

A well performance Electrolytic Controlled Etching (ECE) unit has been designed and constructed in our laboratory. Low electric field strength of few volts and a 2 kHz wave signals has been applied across the electrodes that confined the 9 and 12 μm thick PET foils in the ECE unit. PET foils were exposed to fission fragments (FFS) using 252Cf source. The dependence of different measurable parameters such as FFS fluence (Φ), applied voltage (V), etching temperature (T) and etching concentration (C) on both track etch rate (V T) and breakthrough time (T B) have extensively been studied using the FFS-irradiated PET foils. Various empirical relationships connecting the results of the present work have been extracted. Moreover, the constructed ECE technique has proven to be an encouraged time saving method in the development of trusting measurements comparing with others that might involve expensive sophisticated tools.

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Abstract  

A Cd-shield (cylindrical shell 1 mm in thickness, 34 mm in diameter and 180 mm in length) was used to design a permanent epithermal neutron irradiation site for epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR). This site was achieved by shielding the surface of the aluminum tube of one of the outer irradiation sites. The calculated depression ratio of thermal neutron flux was 1/10. Homogeneity of the neutron flux in the first outer irradiation site has been found numerically using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes and experimentally by irradiating five short copper wires using the outer irradiation capsule. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and the measured results of the neutron flux distributions.

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Abstract  

Application study for the evaluation of sorption characteristics of sawdust as an economical sorbent material used for decontamination of radioisotopes cesium and europium from aqueous solution has been carried out in the present work. In this respect, sawdust (untreated and treated by HNO3) has been prepared from the commercial processing of wood for furniture production. Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by N2 adsorption and DFT software. Radiotracer method onto sawdust from aqueous solutions was studied in a batch technique with respect to pH, contact time, temperature. The kinetics of adsorption of Eu3+ and Cs+ have been discussed using five kinetic models namely, pseudo-first-order model, pseudo-second-order model, Elovich equation, intraparticle diffusion model, and modified Freundlich equation that have been tested in order to analysis the experimental data. Kinetic parameters and correlation coefficients were determined. It was shown that the second-order kinetic equation could describe the sorption kinetics for two metal ions. The metal uptake process was found to be controlled by intraparticle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔH, ΔG and ΔS, have been calculated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient obtained at different temperatures. The obtained results indicated that endothermic nature of sorption process for both 152+154Eu and 134Cs onto sawdust.

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Abstract  

Batch kinetic and column experiments have been carried out at 25, 35, and 45 °C to examine the effect of temperature on SuperLig® 644 cesium (Cs) removal from simulated Hanford tank waste supernate. The simulated solution mimicked the composition of the low-activity waste supernate from tank 241-AN-105 in the U.S. DOE Hanford site. Small quantities of toxic metals, such as Cd, Cr, Fe, and Pb were spiked into the simulant to evaluate the metal's competitiveness with Cs for sorption on SuperLig® 644 resin. The results indicated that the temperature affects the removal of Cs and metal ions, although the effect was not the same for all metal ions. The extent of Cs removal decreased with an increase in temperature. The Cs capacity at breakthrough point was 0.015, 0.013, and 0.011-mmole/g dry resin at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The column was effectively eluted to less than 1% (0.1 C/C 0) of the feed concentration with approximately 10 BVs of 0.5M nitric acid. The resin showed limited affinity for toxic metal ions (Cr, Cd, Fe, and Pb) as compared to Cs. Based on the batch kinetic data, the Cs uptake of the resin was not hampered by the presence of the toxic metals in solution.

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Abstract  

SuperLig® 644 resin was exposed to simulated Hanford waste solution under air atmosphere or in protated inert environment, and in 0.5M HNO3 solution for 15 days and 45 °C. The degradation was evaluated by cesium batch distribution measurement.

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Abstract  

Problems connected with quantitative EDXRF analysis of intermediate thickness samples are addressed. The first one is a systematic study of the various contributions to the total error of the E-T method. Special attention is also given to the enhancement effect for intermediate thickness samples; in this context both monochromatic and bichromatic approaches are adapted to a known theoretical model.

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Abstract  

The radiochemical separation of 88Y from proton irradiated natSrCO3 and alpha-particle irradiated natRbCl, of 86Y from proton irradiated 86SrCO3, and of 87Y from alpha-particle irradiated natRbCl were studied at no-carrier-added levels by two techniques, namely, ion-exchange chromatography using Dowex 50W-X8 and Dowex 21K resins, and solvent extraction using HDEHP. Out of all those methods, the ion-exchange chromatography using Dowex 50W-X8 (cation-exchanger) was found to be the best: the separation yield was high, the chemical impurity in the separated radioyttrium (inactive Sr or Rb) was low (0.5 μg) and the final product was obtained in the form of citrate. The optimized separation method using Dowex 50W-X8 was applied in practical production of 86Y and 88Y via proton irradiations of 86SrCO3 and natSrCO3, respectively, at 16 MeV as well as of 87Y and 88Y via α-particle irradiation of natRbCl at 26 MeV. The tangible experimental yields of 86Y and 87Y amounted to 150 and 5.7 MBq/μA·h, respectively. The yields of 88Y obtained were 0.06 MBq/μA·h and 1 MBq/μA·h for alpha-particle and proton irradiations, respectively. Each yield value corresponds to more than 70% of the respective theoretical value.

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Abstract  

A bibliometric analysis of agricultural literature published in Malaysia between 1981–1990 was undertaken. The analysis shed light on the key journals that published agricultural literature; on the forms of publications which are resorted to in the communication of research results; on the subject areas which are well written on and those that have been neglected; on the nature of contributions made by Malaysian authors; on the publishing practice of corporate bodies and on the number of publications produced each year.

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The space available to plants affects the available resources and hence modifies the growth habits and yield potential of plants. The effect of four seeding densities (250, 500, 750 and 1000 viable seeds/m2) and three row spacings (12, 15 and 20 cm) were evaluated at Morfa Mawr field station at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK during the 1993 and 1994 growing seasons. Number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, thousand-seed weight and seed yield were examined during the study. Capsule index (CI) and harvest index (HI) were calculated from the observed data. During the first year, capsules per plant, seeds per capsule and capsule index were increased by decreasing the seed density, while the maximum seed yield of 3.9 t/ha was recorded at the highest seed density of 1000 seeds/m2. An increase in row spacing led to an almost linear increase in most of the yield attributes of the crop. During the second year, the response of yield and yield attributes to seeding densities was similar to that recorded during the first year. Seed yield increased with decreasing row spacing, while the rest of the components did not show any consistent response. During the first year, the overall performance and production of the crop was higher than in the second year because of the better weather conditions, with mild temperature and high rainfall during the season.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Al-Masri, H. Mukallati, A. Al-Hamwi, H. Khalili, M. Hassan, H. Assaf, Y. Amin, and A. Nashawati

Abstract  

More than one hundred different food stuffs (meat, vegetables cereals, seafood,..) have been collected during 1998, 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for radioactivity as part of the National Food Monitoring Program in Syria. Results have shown that most of the observed concentrations were within the range of the worldwide values with the exception of relatively high levels of 210Po being observed in fish, vegetables, mushrooms, herbs and flowers. The daily intakes of the radionuclides studied have been evaluated. Relatively high values, in comparison with some countries, were found for 210Po (1.9 Bq/day). This is due to high content of 210Po in wheat (2.3 Bq/kg) consumed by Syrians, the daily consumption of wheat by Syrians is about 526 g. In addition, natural and artificial radionuclides in some manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates have been determined. Seventeen manufactured food and eleven types of canned milk were collected from the local market and their radioactivity analyzed. 210Po activity concentration varied between 0.38 and 2.89 Bq/kg dry wt. in canned milk while the highest concentration in infant food was found to be 1.69 Bq/kg dry wt. Other radionuclide concentrations were below the limit of detection of 3 Bq/kg dry wt. and 4 Bq/kg dry wt. for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively, while uranium concentration varied between 2.2 and 10.5 µg/kg dry wt. in milk samples and 0.78-6.0 µg/kg dry wt. in other food samples.

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