Authors:A. Ray, R. Sriravindrarajah, J.-P. Guerbois, P. Thomas, S. Border, H. Ray, J. Haggman, and P. Joyce
The use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) is a well established
practice worldwide in the manufacture of Portland cement (PC)-based construction
materials. While utilisation of industrial by-products has been successful,
the potential of mining wastes is yet to receive adequate attention in the
context of construction materials. In an expanded form perlite, which is a
naturally occurring, hydrated volcanic siliceous glass, is an ideal material
as a lightweight aggregate for use in a wide range of construction materials
including concrete. The mining and processing of the grades of perlite required
for the production of lightweight aggregate results in the creation of a fine
grained waste which currently has no economic value. This paper reports preliminary
data on the utilisation of waste perlite fines as a SCM in calcium silicate-based
construction material and discusses the potential of this mining waste to
reduce the environmental impact of the production of conventional cement-based
Authors:Kayla M. Joyce, Amanda Hudson, Roisin M. O’Connor, Abby L. Goldstein, Michael Ellery, Daniel S. McGrath, Tara S. Perrot, and Sherry H. Stewart
Background and aims
Despite increases in female gambling, little research investigates female-specific factors affecting gambling behavior (GB). Although research suggests that some addictive behaviors may fluctuate across menstrual cycle phase (MCP), gambling requires further investigation. In two studies, we examined associations between MCP and three risky GBs: time spent gambling, money spent gambling, and the probability of consuming alcohol while gambling. Associations between MCP and negative affect were also examined in Study 2. We predicted that, consistent with self-medication theory, increases in negative affect (Study 2) and risky GBs (Studies 1 and 2) would occur premenstrually/menstrually relative to other phases.
Data were obtained from 33 female gamblers using a retrospective timeline followback procedure (Study 1) and from 20 female gamblers using a prospective 32-day, daily diary method (Study 2). In Study 2, salivary progesterone levels verified self-reported MCP validity.
Findings revealed significant, but somewhat inconsistent, MCP effects on GBs across studies. The self-medication hypothesis was partially supported. Increases relative to another MCP(s) were found for alcohol consumption while gambling premenstrually, time spent gambling menstrually/premenstrually, money spent gambling menstrually, and negative affect premenstrually. Unexpectedly, findings more consistently indicated that GBs increased during ovulation, suggestive of enhanced reward sensitivity. Progesterone assays validated self-reported MCP (Study 2).
Discussion and conclusions
The results suggest a role of ovarian hormones on negative affect and GBs in females. This research could lead to the identification of female-specific factors affecting gambling and the development of more effective interventions for females with, or at risk for, problematic gambling.