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  • Author or Editor: H. Khan x
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Abstract  

DNA Comet Assay method was carried out to detect irradiation treatment of some foods like meat, spices, beans and lentils. The fresh meat of cow and duck were irradiated up to radiation doses of 3 kGy, the spices (cardamoms and cumin black) were irradiated to radiation doses of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy while the beans (black beans and white beans) and lentils (red and green lentils) were irradiated to 0.5 and 1 kGy. All the foods were then analyzed for radiation treatment using simple microgel electrophoresis of single cells or nuclei (DNA Comet Assay). Sedimentation, lysis and staining times were adjusted to get optimized conditions for correct and easy analysis of each food. Using these optimized conditions, it was found out that radiation damaged DNA showed comets in case of irradiated food samples, whereas in non-treated food samples, round or conical spots of stained DNA were visible. Shape, length and intensity of these comets were also radiation dose dependent. Screening of unirradiated and irradiated samples by Comet Assay was successful in the case of all the foods under consideration under the optimized conditions of assay. Therefore, for different kinds of irradiated foods studied in the present study, the DNA Comet Assay can be used as a rapid, simple and inexpensive screening test.

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Abstract  

Aqueous solution of ferrous-cupric sulfate has been evaluated spectrophotometrically as radiation dosimeter and post-irradiation stability at different storage temperatures has been studied. The response curve drawn at a peak wavelength of 304 nm shows a linear response of up to 7 kGy. However, with proper calibration, the system can be used up to 14 kGy. At room temperature (ca. 25 °C) in the dark, the irradiated solution showed stable response up to about 12 h, followed by a small decrease in response up to 20 d. Post-irradiation storage at lower temperature (10 °C) shows no significant change in absorbance over a storage period of 6 d. However, for storage at higher temperature (40 °C) the dosimeter showed a stable response only up to a few hours and at longer storage times the response of the dosimeter increased.

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Abstract  

Characterization of dilute solution of gamma-irradiated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in acetone has been carried out. The polymer sample in form of natural beads was administered a gamma-ray dose of 30 kGy by a cobalt-60 radiationsource. Various types of viscosities, viscosity average molecular weight, shape and size of irradiated PMMA and its two fractions were calculated. The results were compared with those for unirradiated PMMA. Degradation of PMMA as a result of irradiation has been observed.

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Abstract  

Total fluorescence of aqueous phenylacetic acid system at neutral pH has been evaluated as low-dose -ray chemical dosimeter, using the fluorescence accessory of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The useful working range of the system is from 4 to 70 Gy. The postirradiation stability of the dosimeter response has been studied at different pH's, storage temperatures and light conditions. The post-irradiation stability of the dosimeter decreases with an increase in storage temperature. The stability is not affected in diffuse sunlight but it is very unstable in direct sunlight.

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Abstract  

Effects of relative humidity conditions in the irradiation chamber and of temperature of the chamber on the response of 3 mm thick light blue poly (methyl methacrylate) sheets have been studied. The response was measured spectrophotometrically at 402, 450, 596 and 612 nm. The response of the dosimeter is independent of the relative humidity (12–97%) during irradiation if the response is measured within 24 h of irradiation. If the response is measured after longer storage time, the absorbance at 402 and 450 nm increases significantly. At these two wavelengths the response of the dosimeter is also independent of the temperature of the irradiation chamber in the range of 0 to 40 °C. However, at higher temperatures (60, 80 °C), the response is not uniform.

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Abstract  

Aqueous solution of coumarin (-benzopyrone) has been evaluated spectrophotometrically as a -ray dosimeter. In the present study measurements have been made at peak wavelength of 347 nm as well as at two other wavelengths (i. e. 360 and 370 nm). The response of the dosimeter with respect to absorbed dose is linear in the range of 0.05 to 0.5 kGy when absorption measurements are made at 347 nm. However, this dose range can be increased up to 0.8 kGy if analyzed at longer wavelengths of 360 and 370 nm. Postirradiation stability at room temperature in the dark show that the response increases gradually till 6 d. Afterwards the response is almost stabilized up to 42 d at all the wavelengths studied.

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Abstract  

Dilute aqueous solution of cresol red has been evaluated spectrophotometrically as possible gamma rays dosimeter. A 0.10 mM solution of cresol red was irradiated by gamma rays using a cobalt-60 radiation source. The absorbance spectra of the unirradiated and irradiated solutions were recorded using double beam scanning spectrophotometer. The absorbance of the solution before and after irradiation was measured at 434 nm (λmax) as well as at other wavelengths (415, 448 and 470 nm). Various parameters, such as Absorbance (A), ΔA, %A, -log A and log Ao/Ai were plotted against radiation dose, in order to check the response of cresol red solution and its possible use as chemical dosimeter. The response plots of A, ΔA, and %A versus absorbed dose showed that the solution can be used as a radiation dosimeter in a dose range up to 0.82 kGy. Using response plots of -log A and log Ao/Ai, the useful dose range can be extended up to 1.65 kGy; which are useful dose ranges for food irradiation applications. Stability studies of cresol red solution at different light and temperature conditions for pre- and post-irradiated storage of the dosimetric solutions suggested that aqueous solution of cresol red is highly stable in dark, under fluorescence light and at room temperature up to 150 days

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Abstract  

An X-ray fluorescence spectrometric multivariable regression procedure is described for the determination of titanium and molybdenum in special steels and alloys in the concentration range from 9.41% down to 120 μg/g using Ti Kα1,2 and Mo Kα1,2 analyte lines. In general, better results have been achieved in first order base curve polynomials using LiF (200) crystal in combination with scintillation counter (SC) or krypton proportional counter (KPC). However, LiF (220)+SC combination also yields favorable results for Mo. The measured concentrations of Ti and Mo for BAS alloy steel standards agree very well with their certified values. The automated XRFS method for the determination of Ti and Mo appears to be free from matrix effects and is suitable for their measurement in special steels and alloys down to 120 μg/g concentration of Ti with a precision of 3.2% and an accuracy of ±2.5% and for Mo down to 350 μg/g with a precision of <1% and an accuracy of ±1.1%. The sensitivities for these lowest concentrations are calculated to be 5960 counts/mass %/s and 8000 counts/mass %/s for Ti and Mo, respectively.

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Abstract  

Adsorption of cesium from aqueous solutions on potassium copper nickel hexacyanoferrate(II) (KCNF) has been investigated in batch experiments and optimized as a function of concentration of acids, salts and adsorbate using a radiotracer technique. The results are presented in terms of distribution coefficient, Kd (ml·g–1). The uptake of cesium obeys a Freundlich adsorption isotherm over the concentration range of 3.7 to 37 mmol·l–1 with b values of 0.77, 0.68 and 0.56 at temperatures of 293, 313, 333 K, respectively. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm is followed in the concentration range of 15 to 75 mmol·l–1 in the same temperature range. The values of limiting adsorption concentration (Cm) have been found to be 2.58, 2.44 and 2.32 mmol·g–1. The heat of adsorption was calculated as 26.43 kJ·mol–1. The influence of a number of anions and cations on cesium retention has also been studied. Column experiments have been performed and breakthrough have been obtained under different operating conditions. The low cesium capacity of 1.1 mmol·g–1 has been obtained under dynamic conditions as compared to batch experiments. Desorption of cesium from the column has been achieved (45.4%) by nitric acid solution of 8M concentration at a flow rate of 0.5 ml·min–1.

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