New cubic leucite-type compounds, CsMSi2O6 (M=B0.2Al0.8,Al0.2Fe0.8), Cs2MSi5O12 (M=Cd, Mg, Ni, Zn) have been synthesized by the two-stage heat treatment of the solid-state reaction. The thermal expansion properties of the synthesized leucite-type compounds have been studied with HTXRD and LTXRD in the temperature range of 123 to 1273 K. The thermal expansion rate of CsB0.2Al0.8Si2O6 was found to be considerably smaller than that of CsAlSi2O6, while the thermal expansion property of Cs2MSi5O12 (M=Mg, Zn, Cd) was found to have a linear relationship in the temperature range of 298 to 1273 K. By using Rietveld analysis it was found that the thermal expansion rate decreased with increasing the Si—O—M(Si) angle for cubic leucite-type compounds at 298 K, and that the phase transitions of CsAlSi2O6 and Cs0.9Al0.9Si2.1O6 were due to the relationship between the bond angle of Si—O—M(Si) of the three-dimensional framework structure and the space ratio in the unit cell at 298 K.
The synergistic effect on the extraction of thorium(IV) was found by the combination of 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dpp) as a neutral bidentate ligand. Especially in the presence of dpp (1·10–3M) in benzene, the distribution ratio of thorium(IV) increased by a factor of about 300. Such synergistic enhancement of the extraction was ascribed to the formation of the adduct complex of Th(tta)4(phen) and Th(tta)4(dpp) in the organic phase. The extraction constant and the adduct formation constant were determined and discussed.
Authors:M. Imamura, H. Nagai, M. Honda, K. Kobayashi, K. Yoshida, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Kobayashi
We present a brief description of the status of our accelerator mass spectrometry system at the tandem accelerator facility of the University of Tokyo and some examples of measurements in environmental samples which have been recently performed. Fallout10Be activities have been measured, from rain samples collected monthly in Tokyo from 1975 to 1977 and from 1984 to 1986, and compared with those of7Be and137Cs. A preliminary experiment on14C measurement in volcanic gas samples is also reported.
Authors:R. Matsushita, M. Koyama, S. Yamada, M. Kobayashi, and H. Moriyama
In order to improve the accuracy of reactor neutron activation analysis, flux gradients and spectrum changes in the irradiation capsule have been studied at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). The flux and spectrum monitoring samples of Fe, Co, Au, Sb, U and Ni were placed at several positions in a polyethylene irradiation capsule of 24 mm inner diameter and 98 mm length, and were irradiated in a pneumatic irradiation facility (Pn-2). The flux gradients were found to be rather negligible in the vertical (axial) direction while they were considerable in the radial one. The flux gradient was around 5%/cm for thermal neutrons and 10%/cm for epithermal and fast neutrons. The spectrum changes were dependent on the materials (polyethylene and silica) filled in the capsule. Based on these observations, the effect of the flux gradients and spectrum changes on the accuracy of reactor neutron activation analysis was discussed.
Authors:K. Kudo, T. Shigematsu, K. Kobayashi, and H. Iso
A method of radioactivation analysis has been developed for the substoichiometric determination of cobalt, copper and manganese
in glass and glass-making materials. The substoichiometric extraction of cobalt with α-nitroso-β-naphthol was studied and
simple procedures are suggested for the determination of the three elements. Cobalt is extracted substoichiometrically as
α-nitroso-β-naphtholate into chloroform from solution of pH 6.2, copper as dithizonate in carbon tetrachloride from weak acidic
solution, and manganese as tetraphenylarsonium permanganate into chloroform after oxidation to permanganate. Contents from
2 ppm to 3 ppb of cobalt, copper and managanese were analysed in glass-making materials, and it is shown that the method for
their determination is reliable and superior in accuracy and reproducibility.
Authors:J. Koarashi, S. Mikami, K. Akiyama, H. Kobayashi, and M. Takeishi
A simple and reliable sampling system for 3H and 14C in airborne release from nuclear facilities was designed. The sampling system can collect 3H and 14C simultaneously with a condensation technique using a commercially available cold trap equipment and a CO2 absorption technique using an organic alkali monoethanolamine solution, respectively. In situ performance tests for the effluent
from a reprocessing plant showed that the system has high and stable efficiencies for collecting 3H and 14C for a one-week batch sampling at a sampling flow rate of 0.4 l . min-1. These collection techniques also provided a simple procedure of following sample preparation for activity measurements by
liquid scintillation counting. The detectable concentrations of the proposed monitoring method were 3.0 Bq . m-3 for 3H and 1.6 Bq . m-3 for 14C, respectively. The sensitivity would be on an acceptable level for routine monitoring of airborne release at nuclear facilities.
Authors:Y. Tsujimi, M. Kobayashi, H. Furuta, and T. Yagi
The ultra-slow modes with a relaxation time much longer than 1 ns are discovered by a time-resolved spectroscopy in uniaxial ferroelectric (NH2CH2COOH)3H2SO4 (TGS) and in glass-former HOCH2(CHOH)4CH2OH (D-sorbitol). A mode discovered in TGS is a thermal relaxational mode and is proved to be the physical origin of the central peak found by Brillouin scattering. Two modes are discovered in D-sorbitol. One is a thermal relaxational mode. The other is a mode characterized by the Kohlraush-Williams-Watts function with a relaxation time
R. A remarkable result is that
R indicates a critical behavior not at the liquid-glass transition temperature Tg =–7°C but at the ergodic to nonergodic transition temperature Tc=33°C.
Authors:K. Kudo, T. Shigematsu, H. Yonezawa, and K. Kobayashi
Uranium and thorium in LSI materials were determined by INAA and α-particles in these materials were also measured. The contents
of uranium and thorium and the α-activity in ceramics and zirconia samples were very high. Calculation of α-flux from uranium
and thorium contents and analysis of α-spectra were carried out for the ceramics and zirconia samples. The calculated values
of α-flux in these samples agreed with the α-flux measured.
Authors:A. Hirose, H. Wada, K. Kobayashi, and D. Ishii
Thermal neutron activation analysis of hafnium in zircaloy was investigated with a Van de Graaff accelerator. Thermal neutrons
were obtained by moderating Be−D fast neutrons with paraffin blocks.179mHf isotope with a half-life of 18.6 s, produced by178Hf(n, γ)179mHf reaction, was utilized in the present analysis. This method made it possible to analyze hafnium rapidly and non-destructively
by using scandium as an internal standard material. Several tens to hundreds of ppm of hafnium in zircaloy samples were determined
within 2 minutes with a precision of about ±1%.
Authors:J. Koarashi, K. Akiyama, T. Asano, and H. Kobayashi
To establish a practical method for monitoring 129I concentration in airborne release from the Tokai reprocessing plant, the 129I collecting performance of sampling media used was tested by in situ experiments. The results indicated that the combined
use of an activated charcoal-impregnated filter paper and an activated charcoal cartridge gives a collection efficiency of
more than 90% for a one-week sampling of real airborne effluent, at sampling flow rates of 40.6-75.0 l. min-1. The sampling and measurement conditions suitable for a routine-base monitoring are demonstrated.