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Abstract  

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to establish criteria for optimization of raw material selection, roasting process, eating quality, visual appearance, and shelf-life extension of peanuts [1-4]. DSC methods were developed as both predictive and analytical tools to define process operating guidelines and to correlate with traditional quality attributes of roasted peanuts [1-4].

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We describe an application of DSC as an analytical ‘fingerprinting’ method that has been used to characterize the thermal properties of wheat starch in low-moisture, wheat-flour-based baked products, including cookies, crackers, and pretzels. This use of DSC has enabled us to relate starch thermal properties, on the one hand, to starch structure, and on the other hand, to starch functionality, in terms of baking performance and finished-product quality.

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Glass transitions in starch, gluten and bread as measured

Dielectric spectroscopy and TMA methods

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: V. T. Huang, L. Haynes, H. Levine, and L. Slade

Dielectric Spectroscopy (DS) and Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) were used to identity the glass transition temperature (T g) of native wheat starch, vital wheat gluten and a commercial bread, in response to changes in moisture content. An open-ended coaxial probe technique was used to measure the permittivity or dielectric constant (ɛ′) and the loss factor (ɛ″) as functions of moisture, for 2.45 GHz frequency, at constant density and temperature. Plots of ɛ′ and ɛ″ as functions of moisture content showed dramatic changes in mobility-based dielectric properties, which occur upon transition from the glassy solid to the rubbery liquid state. The modified TMA method can measure the change in viscoelastic properties aroundT g. This study further confirms that synthetic polymer science principles can be applied to food systems.

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Abstract  

Thermal analysis was used to deduce the mechanism of resistance to enzymatic digestion by starches and to account for the extent of resistance at different enzymolysis reaction temperatures. Thermalanalysis was also used to determine the most productive treatment temperature for exploration of the effects of heat-moisture treatment of starches on their subsequent chemical and physical behavior, including enzyme digestibility. The starches were selected according to an experimental design based on a nontraditional description of genetically varied corn starches. As a result, each functional response to heat moisture treatments of the starches adjusted to different moisture contents could be assigned to the relevant causative structural factor in the experimental design.

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