An isothermal method was applied to measure the thermal
decomposition of reactive solids in a sensitive heat flux reaction calorimeter,
C80. This technique experimentally clarified the decomposition mechanisms
of unstable substances based on the shapes of the heat flow curves, from which
autocatalysis, first-order reaction or pseudo-autocatalytic reaction could
be recognized. Kinetic parameters were derived from the measured data.
Recently food-grade microemulsions have been of increasing interest to researchers and exhibited great potential on their industrial applications. The microbiological and quality characteristics of NuoMiGao, a traditional Chinese steamed rice cake, affected by a prepared food-grade monolaurin-containing microemulsion have been evaluated in this study. Microbiological analysis indicated that 0.05% microemulsion was comparable to 0.01% sodium dehydroacetate, extending the shelf-life by two days. The quality analysis showed that the addition of the microemulsion effectively prevented the hardening phenomena in rice cake; the lightness and yellowness were fairly stable while redness increased slightly (P<0.05); the lowered pH value and the prevention of moisture drop in rice cake were in agreement with the microbiological analysis and hardness trends.
The effect of short-term higher ambient temperature (HT) and continuous vibration (CV) treatment was comparatively characterized by sensory evaluation and chemical analysis. Results of quantitative descriptive analysis of modified frequency (MF) showed that HT causes both in red wine and white wine a decrease of fruity and floral characters, an unbalance of taste, and a shortness of aftertaste length. CV wine showed very close sensory characters to control in most terms evaluated. Seventy-four volatile compounds were quantitative analysed by solid phase microextractiongas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on the 23 volatiles of highest odour activity value (OAV). The concentrations of potential fruity and floral aroma attributors like isoamyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, β-damascenone, and linalool were lower in HT wine than that in original wine and CV wine.
Nano-ZnO flakes were synthesized by calcination of the precursor of Zn(OH)2 obtained via the reactive ion exchange method between an ion exchange resin and ZnSO4 solution at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, UV-Vis
diffuse reflection spectrum and Na2EDTA titration were used to characterize the structure features and chemical compositions of the as-prepared ZnO. The results
show that the as-prepared ZnO flakes have uniform structure and high purity. Heat capacities in the temperature range of 83
to 396 K were measured. The measured heat capacities values were compared with those of coarse crystal powders and the difference
between this two heat capacity curves was analyzed.
The bread wheat germplasm comprising of 222 accessions was evaluated for tolerance to Sitobion avenae. A 1000-kernel weight loss rate and an unbiased test of the tolerance were used to quantify tolerance trait. The population structure analysis revealed three subpopulations in this wheat collection. After 103 SSR loci which evenly covered all wheat chromosomes were scanned for association, eight SSR loci significantly associated with S. avenae tolerance. The information reported in this study would be helpful for wise utilization of the S. avenae tolerant germplasm and selection of parental lines in wheat breeding programs.
A detail study of distribution, host range, and seasonal pattern of western flower thrips (WFT),
(Pergande), in Yunnan Province was conducted in 2004–2006. The pest is distributed throughout the province and was found in 22 out of 25 widely spaced locations surveyed. WFT was found feeding on 45 species of vegetables, ornamentals, and weeds in the province. Seasonal pattern of WFT on vegetables planted in open field and inside greenhouses was similar and, with exception of minor local differences, did not differ from information generated elsewhere. These findings may provide some useful data for the management of this and possibly other thrips pests in Yunnan.
Zigetang Lake located in the central Tibetan Plateau was selected for the purpose of understanding of recent sedimentation
rates. Based on 137Cs dating marker, the sediment rate was 0.077 cm·yr−1. The sedimentation rate was calculated to be 0.071 cm·yr−1 and 0.029 g·cm−2·yr−1 on the basis of 210Pb CIC model. 210Pb CRS model was also used for understanding of recent sedimentation change. The sediment accumulation rates for the CRS model
ranged from 0.022 to 0.038 g·cm−2·yr−1 with an irregular high value of 0.12 g·cm−2·yr−1 around 1932 at Zigetang Lake core in the past eighty years.
An efficient method used to separate five bioactive compounds from Gelidium amansii was optimized by the HCI software. The optimum composition of mobile phase for high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation was obtained. The elution profiles were calculated by the polynomial theory based on the retention factor ln k = A + BF + CF2 (F was the volume percentage of acetonitrile with 1.0% acetic acid); then, the theory was applied to calculate the elution profile in both isocratic and gradient modes by modifying different mobile phase conditions with HCI program. The calculated results of mobile phase condition suggested that acetonitrile-water (containing 1.0% acetic acid) with a linear gradient elution of 0∼30 min from 15:85 to 50:50 (v/v) was the optimized component. In the experimental conditions, the agreement between the experimental elution profiles and the calculated values of eluted concentration was relatively good.
Differences of size, content and size distribution of free volumes in linear branched and three-armed polystyrenes, synthesized by radical and anionic processes, were observed by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. The temperature dependence of an average free volume radius was quite similar among polystyrenes of different architectures and molecular weight distributions. The free volume radius increased with temperature, from 0.27 nm (T:60 K) to 0.29 nm (T:260 K) and 0.30 nm (Tg:363 K), then to 0.35 nm (423 K), showing turning at and transition temperature. The free volume content decreased from 60 K to 220 K to 300 K showing peculiar minimum at 220 K to 300 K depending on the molecular shape, increased above 320 K, upto 340 to 360 K. The free volume contents decreased with an increase of molecular weight and by an addition of oligomer or plasticiser, suggesting differences in relaxation time or molecular motion between the edge and middle portions of molecular chain and filling effect of smaller molecules in free volumes, respectively. The apparent free volume fraction showed clear variations atT andTg. Size distribution of free volumes suggested more complicated behavior of free volume upon the molecular relaxations and filling effect.
Authors:Q. Zhang, Z. Qian, L. Pan, H. Li and H. Zhu
Berberine, a primary pharmacological active constitute of Coptidis Rhizoma, could inhibit neuronal apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. Here, we aimed to investigate whether and how HIF-1 is implicated in the anti-apoptosis effect of berberine on neurons under hypoxia/ischemia. Viability of PC12 cells treated with berberine prior to or following CoCl2-induced hypoxia was evaluated. Annexin V-PI staining was employed to analyse cell apoptosis ratio. HIF-1α and apoptosis-associated molecules were detected via Western blotting. TUNEL and immunohistochemistry were used to demonstrate apoptosis, HIF-1α and p53 levels in cerebral tissue of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. Berberine pretreatment promoted PC12 cells survival and inhibited apoptosis under hypoxia condition. At the same time, it decreased cell viability and enhancement of apoptosis were observed with berberine treatment under hypoxia. Decreased HIF-1α, caspase 9, caspase 3 and increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio were responsible for the anti-apoptosis of berberine pretreatment. However, pro-apoptosis by berberine under hypoxia was indicated with opposing regulation of those molecules. Significant reduction of apoptosis, HIF-1α and p53 were found in cerebral tissue of MCAO rats treated with berberine. The present study suggests that berberine regulates neuronal apoptosis in cerebral ischemia, which might be dependent on the degree of cell injury. HIF-1 and the followed apoptotic pathway are involved in those effects of berberine.