Slow pyrolysis of walnut shell which is a cheap and abundantly available solid waste was carried out using thermogravimetric
analysis. The effects of raw material heating rate on the pyrolysis properties and kinetic parameters were investigated. A
two-step consecutive reaction model were used to simulate the pyrolysis process. The kinetic parameters were established by
using the pattern search method. Comparison between experimental data and the model prediction indicated that the two-step
consecutive reaction model can better describe the slow pyrolysis of walnut shell as the formation of an intermediate during
the pyrolysis process was taken into account.
, which frequently occurs in non-isothermal thermal analysis, are presented. A series of the approximations for the temperature
integral with different complexity and accuracy are proposed from the procedure. For commonly used values of m in kinetic analysis, the deviation of most approximations from the numerical values of the integral is within 0.7%, except
the first approximation (within 4.0%). Since they are simple in calculation and hold high accuracy, the approximations are
recommended to use in the evaluation of kinetic parameters from non-isothermal kinetic analysis.
The temperature integral cannot be analytically integrated and many simple closed-form expressions have been proposed to use
in the integral methods. This paper first reviews two types of simple approximation expressions for temperature integral in
literature, i.e. the rational approximations and exponential approximations. Then the relationship of the two types of approximations
is revealed by the aid of a new equation concerning the 1st derivative of the temperature integral. It is found that the exponential approximations are essentially one kind of rational
approximations with the form of h(x)=[x/(Ax+k)]. That is, they share the same assumptions that the temperature integral h(x) can be approximated by x/Ax+k). It is also found that only two of the three parameters in the general formula of exponential approximations are needed
to be determined and the other one is a constant in theory. Though both types of the approximations have close relationship,
the integral methods derived from the exponential approximations are recommended in kinetic analysis.
frequently occurs in non-isothermal kinetic analysis. Here E is the activation energy, R the universal gas constant and T the absolute temperature. The exponent m arises from the temperature dependence of the pre-exponential factor. This paper has proposed two new approximate formulae
for the generalized temperature integral, which are in the following forms:
where hm(x) is the equivalent form of the generalized temperature integral. For commonly used values of m in kinetic analysis, the deviations of the new approximations from the numerical values of the integral are within 0.2 and
0.03%, respectively. In contrast to other approximations, both the present approaches are simple, accurate and can be used
easily in kinetic analysis.
A novel method for separating and concentrating magnolol and honokiol from Magnoliae Cortex by solvent sublation and analysis of the compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been established. The optimum conditions for solvent sublation were use of n-butanol as sublation solvent, sample solution at pH 2, nitrogen flow 50 mL min–1, and sublation time 50 min. The floating product obtained under the optimum conditions was determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reversed-phase column, with 22:78 (%, v/v) water-methanol as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min–1. When the method was used for quantification of magnolol and honokiol in Magnoliae Cortex recovery ranged from 98.1 to 106.1%, RSD was from 3.07 to 4.80%, and LOD for honokiol and magnolol were 0.94 and 1.14 ng mL–1, respectively.
The determination of the total selenium in different materials is now a routine task for many laboratories. A few problems, however, still remain concerning the choice of an efficient digestion technique and an accurate and precise detection method. For this purpose, we investigated the action of various reagents used for the wet digestion of different materials. Efficient digestion combined with preconcentration were successfully applied to biological samples. Using PIXE, selenium can be detected at 5 ppb level in a short time. The overall performance of wet digestion and PIXE methods were tested with some standard reference materials.
Experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99Tc as spike tracer and 3H as invariant tracer, were analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and the retardation factor of 99TcO4- on the crushed granite were determined simultaneously by one linear regression. Dispersity of crushed granite was also obtained with 3H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. Experimental results show that the dispersity found by the spike source method is close to that found by the invariant source method. This indicates that dispersity is only a characteristic of the dispersion medium.
2CaO·3B2O3·H2O which has non-linear optical (NLO) property was synthesized under hydrothermal condition and identified by XRD, FTIR and
TG as well as by chemical analysis. The molar enthalpy of solution of 2CaO·3B2O3·H2O in HCl·54.572H2O was determined. From a combination of this result with measured enthalpies of solution of H3BO3 in HCl·54.501H2O and of CaO in (HCl+H3BO3) solution, together with the standard molar enthalpies of formation of CaO(s), H3BO3(s), and H2O(l), the standard molar enthalpy of formation of −(5733.7±5.2) kJ mol−1 of 2CaO·3B2O3·H2O was obtained. Thermodynamic properties of this compound were also calculated by a group contribution method.
An improved accurate coincidence correction formula has been deduced on the basis of Cox's theory considering the complex situations of differences in pulse shaping width as well as a relative delay existing between the two channels. The correctness has been examined by experiments.
The adsorption of 99Tc on the adsorbers Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 was studied by batch experiments under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The effects of pH and CO32- concentration of the simulated ground water on the adsorption ratios were also investigated, and the valences of Tc in solution after the adsorption equilibrium were studied by solvent extraction. The adsorption isotherms of TcO4- on the adsorbers Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 were determined. Experimental results have shown that the adsorption ratio of Tc on Fe decreases with the increase of pH in the range of 5-12 and increases with the decrease of the CO32- concentration in the range of 10-8M-10-2M. Under aerobic conditions, the adsorption ratios of 99Tc on Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 were not influenced by pH and CO32-concentration. When Fe was used as adsorbent, Tc existed mainly in the form of Tc(IV) after equilibrium and in the form of Tc(VII) when the adsorbent was Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 under aerobic conditions. The adsorption ratios of Tc on Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 decreased with the increase of pH in the range of 5-12 and increased with the decrease of the CO32- concentration in the range of 10-8M-10-2M under anoxic conditions. Tc existed mainly in the form of Tc(IV) after equilibrium when Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 was the adsorbent under anoxic conditions. The adsorption isotherms of TcO4- on the adsorbers Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 are fairly in agreement with the Freundlich’s equation under both aerobic and anoxic conditions.