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  • Author or Editor: H. M. Patil x
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Abstract

The growth of neodymium tartrate crystals was achieved in silica gel by single diffusion method. Optimum conditions were established for the growth of good quality crystals. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic study indicates the presence of water molecules and tartrate ligands and suggests that tartrate ions are doubly ionised. The thermal behaviour of the material was studied using thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermogravimetric analysis support the suggested chemical formula of the grown crystal to be Nd2(C4H4O6)3·7H2O, and the presence of seven water molecules as water of hydration. It is shown that the material is thermally stable up 45 °C beyond which it decomposes through many stages till the formation of neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) at 995 °C. The decomposition pattern is reported to be typical of a hydrated metal tartrate.

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Abstract

In this study, calcium cadmium tartrate single crystals were grown in silica gel at ambient temperature. Effects of various parameters like gel pH, gel aging, gel density, and concentration of reactants on the growth of these crystals were studied. Crystals having different morphologies and habits were obtained. Transparent, diamond-like pyramidal-shaped crystals of calcium cadmium tartrate were obtained. Some of the crystals obtained were faint yellowish, with some milky white crystals being attched to them due to fast growth rate; faces are well developed and polished. The grown crystals were characterized by thermoanalytic techniques (TG, DTA, and DTG), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystal system is confirmed to be orthorhombic having lattice parameters a = 7.9411 Å, b = 7.0396 Å, and c = 6.7271 Å as determined by powder XRD analysis. TG, DTA, and DTG analyses show a remarkable thermal stability. The results of these observations are described and discussed.

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Summary

This paper describes a new, simple, precise, and accurate HPTLC method for quantification of (−)-epicatechin in the leaves of Cassia fistula. The leaves were separately extracted with methanol and water by both maceration and hot extraction (Soxhlet apparatus). Chromatographic separation of the drug was performed on aluminium foil silica gel 60 F254 plates with toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid-methanol 20:12:4:4 (v/v) as mobile phase. Densitometric evaluation of the separated zone was performed at 280 nm. Epicatechin in the extract was satisfactorily resolved with R F 0.22 ± 0.02. The accuracy and reliability of the method were assessed by evaluation of linearity (200–800 ng per band), precision (method precision RSD 1.42% and instrumental precision RSD 1.12%), accuracy (98.12%), and specificity in accordance with ICH guidelines.

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Summary

A simple, sensitive, and accurate liquid chromatographic method with photodiode array detector was developed for the determination of andrographolide, phyllanthin, and hypophyllanthin. The separation was carried out on a reverse-phase 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μ symmetry C8 column (Waters). The gradient was prepared from 0.1% orthophosphoric acid (solvent A) and (1:1) acetonitrile:methanol (solvent B) as mobile phase delivered at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1. A linear behavior was observed between observed peak area response, and concentration of analytes was investigated, with good correlation coefficient. The method established was successfully applied to quantify andrographolide, phyllanthin, and hypophyllanthin from the herbal hepatoprotective formulation.

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Introduction

Chronic periodontitis (CP) is an infectious disease resulting in inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth with progressive attachment loss and bone loss. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 980-nm diode laser, as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the management of CP.

Methodology

A total of 40 systemically healthy subjects diagnosed with CP were randomly assigned into two groups G1 (SRP and sham application of laser) and G2 (SRP and laser irradiation) with equal numbers in each. The levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) were estimated from plaque samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical and microbiological parameters were assessed at baseline, 4–6, and 12–14 weeks posttreatment in both groups.

Results

A gradual reduction in the levels of Pg and improvement in clinical parameters were observed from baseline to 4–6 and 12–14 weeks in both groups. However, the comparison between groups, although clinically relevant, was not found to be statistically significant.

Conclusion

Although a 980-nm diode laser may not have any added benefit compared with SRP, it may emerge as an effective non-surgical treatment option in advanced periodontitis with complex inaccessible subgingival niches where comprehensive periodontal care may not be feasible.

Open access
Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S. L. Krishnamurthy, S. K. Sharma, D. K. Sharma, P. C. Sharma, Y. P. Singh, V. K. Mishra, D. Burman, B. Maji, B. K. Bandyopadhyay, S. Mandal, S. K. Sarangi, R. K. Gautam, P. K. Singh, K. K. Manohara, B. C. Marandi, D. P. Singh, G. Padmavathi, P. B. Vanve, K. D. Patil, S. Thirumeni, O. P. Verma, A. H. Khan, S. Tiwari, M. Shakila, A. M. Ismail, G. B. Gregorio and R. K. Singh

Genotype × environment (G × E) interaction effects are of special interest for identifying the most suitable genotypes with respect to target environments, representative locations and other specific stresses. Twenty-two advanced breeding lines contributed by the national partners of the Salinity Tolerance Breeding Network (STBN) along with four checks were evaluated across 12 different salt affected sites comprising five coastal saline and seven alkaline environments in India. The study was conducted to assess the G × E interaction and stability of advanced breeding lines for yield and yield components using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. In the AMMI1 biplot, there were two mega-environments (ME) includes ME-A as CARI, KARAIKAL, TRICHY and NDUAT with winning genotype CSR 2K 262; and ME-B as KARSO, LUCKN, KARSA, GOA, CRRI, DRR, BIHAR and PANVE with winning genotypes CSR 36. Genotypes CSR 2K 262, CSR 27, NDRK 11-4, NDRK 11-3, NDRK 11-2, CSR 2K 255 and PNL 1-1-1-6-7-1 were identified as specifically adapted to favorable locations. The stability and adaptability of AMMI indicated that the best yielding genotypes were CSR 2K 262 for both coastal saline and alkaline environments and CSR 36 for alkaline environment. CARI and PANVEL were found as the most discernible environments for genotypic performance because of the greatest GE interaction. The genotype CSR 36 is specifically adapted to coastal saline environments GOA, KARSO, DRR, CRRI and BIHAR and while genotype CSR 2K 262 adapted to alkaline environments LUCKN, NDUAT, TRICH and KARAI. Use of most adapted lines could be used directly as varieties. Using them as donors for wide or specific adaptability with selection in the target environment offers the best opportunity for widening the genetic base of coastal salinity and alkalinity stress tolerance and development of adapted genotypes. Highly stable genotypes can improve the rice productivity in salt-affected areas and ensure livelihood of the resource poor farming communities.

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