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  • Author or Editor: H. Matsumura x
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In the mdx mice, lack of dystrophin leads to increases in calcium influx and myonecrosis, followed by muscle regeneration. Synapse elimination is faster in mdx than in controls, suggesting that increases in calcium influx during development could be involved. In the present study, we evaluated whether dystrophic fibers display changes in permeability to Evans Blue Dye (EBD) during development of the neuromuscular junction. EBD is a sensitive label for the early detection of increased myofiber permeability and sarcolemmal damage. After intraperitoneal injection of EBD, sternomastoid (STN) and tibialis anterior (T. anterior) muscles were analyzed with fluorescence microscopy. At 01, 07 and 14 days of age, STN and TA mdx myofibers were not stained with EBD. At 21 days of age, positive labeling of TA and STN mdx myofibers was seen, suggesting permeability modification and myonecrosis. Adult muscles showed a decrease (T. anterior) or no changes (STN) in the amount of EBD-positive fibers. These results suggest that there is no sarcolemmal damage detected by EBD during development of dystrophic neuromuscular junctions and other factors may contribute to the earlier synapse elimination seen in dystrophic muscle.

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Abstract  

Activation is one of the severe problems at the high-energy accelerator facilities. By using gamma-ray spectrometry and activation detector technique, we could obtain important information on (1) nuclear reactions, (2) energy spectra of secondary particles, (3) penetration behavior of secondary particles in shield wall, (4) historical record of beam loss occurred in the accelerator rooms. It was concluded that the technique and knowledge of activation analysis are very useful to solve the radiation protection problems at the accelerator facilities.

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Abstract  

Highly selective and sensitive γ-ray detection was performed by coincidence and anticoincidence event analysis after list-mode data acquisition using an HPGe spectrometer equipped with NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillation detectors. In order to obtain the most suitable detection of specific nuclides, coincidence or anticoincidence spectra could be freely constructed by extracting events with particular time and energy correlations. Although the detector arrangement of this system was the same as that of a typical Compton suppression spectrometer, background counts were drastically reduced and γ-rays of particular nuclides could be selectively detected by using γ-γ, γ-X, γ-X-X, and γ-β+ coincidences.

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Abstract  

In order to estimate the total radioactivity induced in a concrete shield by thermal neutron-capture reactions at high-energy accelerator facilities, the observed activity of 36Cl in the concrete is expected to serve as an indicator of the thermal neutron fluence. Since 36Cl can also be produced from K and Ca by spallation reactions, we measured these production rates in order to clarify the contribution of each reaction. The Cl, K, and Ca targets were irradiated with neutrons having a maximum energy of 500 MeV. As a result, the production rates of 36Cl from Cl were only two orders higher than those from K and Ca. It was found that the 36Cl production ratios from Cl, K, and Ca were 6.7%, 6.8%, and 86.5%, respectively, and Ca was the main source of 36Cl production.

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Abstract  

The recoil properties of 26 radionuclides produced in the photonuclear reactions on Cu at bremsstrahlung end-point energies (E 0) of 250 to 1000 MeV have been investigated using the thick-target thick-catcher method. Kinematic properties of the product nuclei were calculated by the two-step vector velocity model. The calculated mean kinetic energies,T, of product nuclei increase with increase of the mass difference between products and target, reflecting the resonance natures and absorption mechanisms. TheT atE 0≥600 MeV were well reproduced by a calculation performed by PICA code byGabriel andAlsmiller atE 0=400 MeV, except for (γ,xn) products by giant-resonance.

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Abstract  

Gold activation detectors were placed at nine positions on the inner wall of the KEK neutrino target station, and were exposed to secondary particles during approximately one month of machine operation. After exposure, the production rates of 19 spallation nuclides, which were produced in the Au activation detectors by nuclear reactions with different threshold energies, were determined by γ-ray spectrometry. Thus, it was indicated that the Au activation detector is a novel tool for obtaining the distribution of various secondary particles with high intensity and high energy.

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Abstract  

An infrared furnace (ULVAC RHL-410P) was newly applied to the extraction of tritium from concrete samples. After studying the tritium recovery yield regarding temperature and time, the best extraction conditions were set to 800 °C (setting temperature) for 30 minutes under Ar-gas flow of 200 ml/min. Tritium was collected in two cold traps and transferred to a vial for liquid scintillation counting. It took about one hour for the extraction of tritium. Reproducibility and recovery yield of tritium were about 100% compared to the values obtained by the ordinary heating method using an electric furnace. Gamma-ray emitters and tritium of concrete samples collected from several accelerator facilities have been determined. The specific activity of tritium strongly correlated with that of 152Eu and 60Co, so it was found that tritium was produced by thermal neutron reaction by the 6Li(n,)3H reaction. The results indicate that the tritium specific activity in concrete can be estimated from the 60Co specific activity obtained easily by -ray measurement.

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Abstract  

For evaluation of radioactivity induced in the concrete samples from accelerator facilities, the residual radioactivity in concrete sample, collected from seven accelerator facilities, was determined by γ-ray spectrometry. The tritium was extracted by the heating method using an IR furnace, and measured with a liquid scintillation counter. It was found that the major radioisotopes activated mainly by neutrons in the concrete samples were 152Eu, 60Co, 134Cs and 3H. The concentrations of radioactivities induced by thermal neutron capture are the highest at a depth of 10 cm in the concrete wall. The correlation between tritium, 60Co and 152Eu activity was investigated by measuring many concrete samples for seven accelerator facilities. The results indicate that their activities are strongly correlated with each other. So it would also be concluded that the total activity in shielding concrete could be estimated on the basis of the activities of 60Co and 152Eu.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: K. Ninomiya, H. Sugiura, T. Nakatsuka, Y. Kasamatsu, H. Kikunaga, W. Sato, T. Yoshimura, H. Matsumura, K. Takamiya, M. Kubo, K. Sueki, A. Yokoyama, Y. Hamajima, T. Miura, K. Nishiyama, and A. Shinohara

Abstract  

The electronic X-ray energies of muonic atoms were precisely measured. The atomic number (Z) dependence of the energy difference between electronic X-rays of muonic atoms and Z-1 atoms (energy shift) was systematically investigated. The energy shifts in the low-Z region were compared with those of the high-Z region that had been obtained experimentally and theoretically in previous work. An obvious difference between these two regions was found in the atomic-number dependence of the energy shift. We also compared the energy shifts of muonic atoms with those of pionic atoms.

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