Hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice has been studied by many researchers because of its diverse causes and potential for toxicity especially in the neonate but to a lesser extent beyond the neonate as well. Several studies have been performed on the normal metabolism and metabolic disorders of bilirubin in last decades of the 20th century. The recent advancement in research and technology facilitated for the researchers to investigate new horizons of the causes and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. This review gives a brief introduction to hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice and the recent advancement in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. It reports modifications in the previously used methods and findings of some newly developed ones. At present, ample literature is available discussing the issues regarding hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice, but still more research needs to be done.