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  • Author or Editor: H. Ozaki x
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Abstract  

Simple and effective procedures for the determination of Re, Os and Ir by radiochemical neutron activation analysis are presented. Those elements are separated individually by distillation (for Os) and anion exchange techniques (for Re and Ir) for a single specimen. Reproducibilities of the data obtained by the present procedures are evaluated by replicate analyses of the Allende meteorite sample, and are deduced to be 3% for Re, 6% for Os and 4% for Ir (1). Detection limits for the present procedures are calculated to be 1 ppb for Re, 20 ppb for Os and 5 ppb for Ir. These procedures were applied to Antarctic meteorites and proved to work very effectively for the determination of trace Re, Os and Ir in chondrite meteorites.

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Abstract  

Chlorine, bromine and iodine (hereafter, halogens) were detemined for rock samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The powdered samples and reference standards prepared from chemical reagents were simultaneously irradiated for 10 to 30 minutes with or without a cadmium filter in a TRIGA-II reactor at the Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo University. The samples were subjected to radiochemical procedures of halogens immediately after the irradiation. Iodine was firstly precipitated as PdI2, and chlorine and bromine were successively precipitated as Ag-halides at the same time. In this study, geological standard rocks, sedimentary rocks and meteorites were analyzed for trace halogens. In some Antarctic meteorites, iodine contents were observed to be anomalously high. Chlorine contents also are somewhat high. The overabundance of iodine and chlorine must be caused by terrestrial contamination on the Antarctica.

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Abstract  

Boron in carbonate reference samples was measured by neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) using cold and thermal neutron guide beams of the JRR-3M reactor. In order to determine B contents in marine carbonates, the Doppler-broadened -ray peak of 478 keV was used together with the correction of interference from Na-peak of 472 keV. We determined B in coral samples within 3% of analytical precision. The data obtained by the present method are mostly consistent with reported values. Here, we report PGA of B in marine carbonates.

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Abstract  

A simple and non-destructive method has been proposed for the routine determination of uranium by epithermal neutron activation analysis in coral skeletons. Using a cadmium capsule, about 0.1-0.2 g samples were irradiated for 6 hours in the Triga Mark II Reactor. Measurements of -ray (239Np via 239U) were performed with each sample and standard after cooling for about three days. Compared with a non-destructive thermal NAA, the present method was found to improve the sensitivity because it reduced the intense Compton background induced by 24Na. We determined uranium in coral standards within 2% of analytical precision. The data obtained for the carbonate standards are mostly consistent with reported values. The present method could be usefully applied to determine uranium contents in fossil corals from the Funafuti Atoll in the Pacific. The distribution of uranium between seawater and coral skeletons is also discussed in order to understand the environmental media in which the coral grew.

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Abstract  

For the determination of trace Cu, Zn and In in rock samples, a simple and convenient scheme of RNAA is presented. In this scheme, relatively short-lived nuclides,64Cu,69mZn and116mIn are radiochemically purified immediately after the irradiation of samples. Although the sensitivity for Zn and In is lower in this scheme than that in the RNAA using65Zn and114mIn at a higher neutron fluence, the present radiochemical procedures are simpler and were proved to be highly effective for the determination of these elements in most terrestrial igneous rocks and meteorite samples.

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This study aimed to investigate the effects of a gradually decreasing intensity training from that corresponding to maximal anaerobic power (MAnP) to that of near maximal oxygen uptake () (decrescent intensity training) on MAnP, maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD), and in untrained young men. Seventeen untrained young men were randomly divided into either a training (TR; n = 9) group or a control (CON; n = 8) group. The TR group performed the decrescent intensity training, whereas the CON group did not perform any exercises. The mean training time per session throughout the training period was 275 ± 135 s. There was a Group × Time interaction for both absolute and relative (p < 0.01) values of , MAOD, and MAnP. The TR group had significantly increased values for all variables after the 8-week training program, and the relative values of all variables were significantly higher in the TR group than in the CON group. Muscle thicknesses in the anterior and posterior aspects of the thigh and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion strengths improved only in the TR group (p < 0.05). A single-exercise training with gradually decreasing intensity from that corresponding to the MAnP to that of approximately 100% improves MAnP, MAOD, and concurrently, despite the short training time per session.

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Abstract  

Separation by means of supported liquid membranes is a useful method for the preparation and preconcentration of radioactive nuclides. The permeation of rare earth elements through a bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate-decalin membrane supported on a microporous polytetrafluoroethylene sheet was studied using a multitracer containing radioactive nuclides of Sc, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ce, Pm, Gd, Yb, and Lu. Permeation rates of these elements from feed solutions of various acidity to receiving solutions of 0.5 mol·dm−3 HCl were determined simultaneously. The feed solution at pH 1.4 gave the highest permeation rate for Ce, Pm, and Gd, amounting to about 95% of permeation for Ce and Pm, 80% for Gd, and 10% for Yb in 21 h. Scandium, Zr, Nb, Hf, and Lu were not transported at all from the feed solution. Permeation rates of Yb and Lu from the feed solution at pH 1.4 to receiving solutions of 0.75, 1.0, 2.3, and 4.0 mol·dm−3 HCl increased with the concentration. The results obtained indicate that the light rare earth elements can be separated from the heavy ones by this method.

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Abstract  

The multitracer technique was applied to elucidate of influence of humate formation on adsorption behavior of ultratrace elements. Dissolved fractions of Co, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Re and Pt in contact with kaolinite or silica gel were determined simultaneously either in the presence or absence of humic acid, which was partly adsorbed on the solid. Percentage of dissolved fraction of rare earth elements was identical to that of humic acid, indicating high stability of the rare earth-humate complex. Hydrolysis was the most important factor controlling the behavior of Zr and Hf. Both hydrolysis and humate complexation influenced the adsorption of Co, Sr, Ba and Pt, whereas neither affected the distribution of As, Rb and Re.

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Summary  

A systematic and non-destructive technique is proposed for the determination of fluorine in coral samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the 19F(n,γ)20F reaction. About 50 to 80-mg samples in polypropylene capsules were irradiated for 15 seconds in the pneumatic transfer tube system (PN-3) of JRR-3M reactor. After the irradiation at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 . 1013 n . cm-2 . s-1, the coral samples and standards were cooled for 6 seconds and the g-rays emitted were measured for 15 seconds with a Ge detector. The sequence from sample irradiation to g-ray counting was performed under a computer-control mode. The analytical precision was ~5% for the JCp-1 coral standard. The present method was applied to the determination of fluorine in corals from Thailand, Okinawa and the Philippines. The advantage of one method over destructive techniques is discussed by comparing the analytical results obtained for the JCp-1 coral standard using INAA, ion chromatography and spectrophotometry. Factors that may control the levels of fluorine in corals are also discussed.

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Abstract  

A new radiochemical group separation method using APDC reagent in the extraction procedure has been developed. The method has been applied to the radiochemical separation for activated biological samples and also to the preconcentration technique for sea water samples. The transition elements are extracted into chloroform phase from the pH 3.0 aqueous phase and only manganese is subsequently extracted from the pH 7.0 aqueous phase. The validity of the method is demonstrated by analyzing the NBS standard reference materials. In the specimens preconcentrated from the sea water samples adjusted pH to 5.5, vanadium, manganese, copper and zinc can be determined.

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