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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a ten-amino acid peptide hormone that plays pivotal roles in reproduction in vertebrates and octopus. Recently, six GnRH forms (t-GnRH-3-8) and four GnRH receptor subtypes (Ci-GnRHR-1-4) were identified in the protochordate, Ciona intestinalis . In this study, we show the functional modulation of Ci-GnRHR-1 via heterodimerization with the orphan receptor subtype, Ci-GnRHR-4. The dimerization between Ci-GnRHR-1 and R-4 was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis. Binding assays confirmed the binding of t-GnRHs to Ci-GnRHR-1 but not to R-4, and verified no alternation in ligand-binding affinity between Ci-GnRHR-1 homodimer and Ci-GnRHR1&4 heterodimer. The heterodimer was found to stimulate the elevation of intracellular calcium, time-extension of ERK phosphorylation, and up-regulation of cell proliferation, all in a ligand specific manner, compared with the Ci-GnRHR-1 homodimer. In combination, these results indicated that Ci-GnRHR-4 is not an inactive receptor, but a modulatory factor for Ci-GnRHR-1 in C. intestinalis .

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Ci-TK and Ci-TK-R are authentic tachykinin (TK) and TK receptor isolated from a protochordate, Ciona intestinalis . In this study, we investigated a novel function of TK as an enhancer of oocyte growth. Ci-TK-R is expressed specifically in the Ciona vitellogenic oocytes. Moreover, administration of Ci-TK to the Ciona ovary resulted in upregulation of gene expression and enzymatic activity of several proteases. Moreover, maturation of the Ciona oocytes from the vitellogenic stage to the post-vitellogenic stage was induced in the presence of Ci-TK, which was completely blocked by addition of protease inhibitors.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
M. Pham
,
M. Betti
,
P. Povinec
,
M. Benmansour
,
R. Bojanowski
,
P. Bouisset
,
E. Calvo
,
G. Ham
,
E. Holm
,
M. Hult
,
C. Ilchmann
,
M. Kloster
,
G. Kanisch
,
M. Köhler
,
J. La Rosa
,
F. Legarda
,
M. Llauradó
,
A. Nourredine
,
J.-S. Oh
,
M. Pellicciari
,
U. Rieth
,
A. Rodriguez y Baena
,
J. Sanchez-Cabeza
,
H. Satake
,
J. Schikowski
,
M. Takeishi
,
H. Thébault
, and
Z. Varga

Abstract  

A new Reference Material (RM) for radionuclides in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Mediterranean Sea (IAEA-437) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Four radionuclides (40K, 234U, 238U, and 239+240Pu) have been certified, and information values on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals are given for nine radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pb(210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 235U, and 241Am). Results for less frequently reported radionuclides (90Sr, 129I, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 240Pu) are also reported. The RM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in mussel samples, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available in 200 g units.

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