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  • Author or Editor: H. Waqas x
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Abstract  

Sol–gel auto combustion process was employed to synthesize nanosized Mn–Zn ferrite at different pH values (<1, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10). Although self propagating combustion behavior of gel was noted at pH 5 but more effective combustion was observed at pH 6. The smoldering effect was observed in gel prepared at pH 7, 8 and 10, whereas pH < 1 showed localized burning. Thermogravimetric (TG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were done to investigate the effect of pH on the combustion behavior, particle size and the formation of desired magnetic (spinel) phase. From TG curves of burnt powders, activation energy of ignition reaction at each pH value was calculated. The results showed that fuel to oxidant ratio and the amount of gel residuals decided the value of activation energy required to further purify the burnt powders. Calcination parameters (time and temperature in air) of powders P1 and P6 synthesized at pH < 1 and pH 6 were also determined. B–H loop results showed that calcined powder C6 was more ferromagnetic than C1 due to fully developed spinel phase and larger particle size.

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Abstract  

The objective of present research was to sinter nanosized Mn–Zn ferrites (MZF) at low temperature (≤1,000 °C) by avoiding the formation of nonmagnetic phase (hematite). For this purpose, MZF powder was synthesized by sol–gel auto combustion process at 220 °C and further calcined at 450 °C. In calcined powder, single phase (spinel) was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Pellets were pressed, having 43% of the theoretical density and showing 47 emu gm−1 saturation magnetization (M s). Various combinations of heating rate, dwelling time and gaseous environment were employed to meet optimum sintering conditions at low temperature (≤1,000 °C). It was observed that sintering under air or N2 alone had failed to prevent the formation of nonmagnetic (hematite) phase. However, hematite phase can be suppressed by retaining the green compacts at 1,000 °C for 180 min in air then further kept for 120 min in nitrogen. Under these conditions, spinel phase (comprising of nano crystallites), 90% of theoretical density and 102 emu gm−1 of saturation magnetization has been achieved.

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Abstract  

Sol-gel process was employed to synthesize the Pb-BSCCO system having general composition Bi2−xPbxSr2Ca2Cu3O10−δ, where x=0.2, 0.4 and 0.8. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to study the materials produced at different stages. Two-stage heating firstly at 300 and then 800°C was adopted in order to avoid the burning of the materials and formation of carbonates. The carbonate formation was avoided by heating the materials firstly at 300°C for 2 h and without intermediate cooling moved to the furnace having temperature 800°C and hold for 2 h. The sintering behaviour of samples was studied by dilatometry and the results revealed that the sample having x=0.4 was stabled up to a temperature of 700°C while samples having x=0.2 and 0.8 to a temperature of 625°C. The maximum shrinkage was observed at 850°C in all the samples. On the basis of dilatometry results, the samples were sintered at 845°C for 60 h to observe the superconducting phases. The highest volume fraction of high superconducting phase (2223) was noticed in the sample containing x=0.4 having onset T c=110 K.

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Silicon (Si) is essential for normal growth and development in plants and is also beneficial for their responses to wounding. However, the mechanisms by which Si acts to mitigate the effects of wounding is not fully understood. This effect possibly occurs through a reduction in the oxidative stresses associated with wounding. Here, we tested this possibility by investigating the effects of applying different concentrations of Si (0,5 and 1,0 mM) to rice plants under wounding stress for a period of 6 and 12 h. We found that a higher uptake of Si was signifiacntly associated with an increase in leaf chlorophyll contet. In response to wounding induced oxidative stress, the extent of lipid bilayer peroxidation was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by Si application for 6 or 12 h. Activity of the catalase enzyme was initially lowered by Si treatment; however, at 1.0 mM Si, catalase activity increased significantly after 12h of wounding stress. A similar response was also observed for a peroxidase enzyme. Polyphenol oxidase showed a significant reduction in activity. We conclude that Si application does not only improve leaf chlorophyll content but can also overcome the oxidative stress due wounds or physical injuries.

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Abstract

Shape memory alloys are smart materials which have remarkable properties that promoted their use in a large variety of innovative applications. In this work, the shape memory effect and superelastic behavior of nickel-titanium helical spring was studied based on the finite element method. The three-dimensional constitutive model proposed by Auricchio has been used through the built-in library of ANSYS® Workbench 2020 R2 to simulate the superelastic effect and one-way shape memory effect which are exhibited by nickel-titanium alloy. Considering the first effect, the associated force-displacement curves were calculated as function of displacement amplitude. The influence of changing isothermal body temperature on the loading-unloading hysteretic response was studied. Convergence of the numerical model was assessed by comparison with experimental data taken from the literature. For the second effect, force-displacement curves that are associated to a complete one-way thermomechanical cycle were evaluated for different configurations of helical springs. Explicit correlations that can be applied for the purpose of helical spring's design were derived.

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