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  • Author or Editor: H. Wiśniewska x
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The D genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Panda) was used in this study to improve traits of hexaploid winter triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack). Genome D expression was studied in hexaploid triticale lines with single substitutions (1D/1A, 3D/3A, 4D/4A, 5D/5A, 6D/6A, 7D/7A) and a line with 4 substitutions (1D/1A + 3D/3A + 4D/4A + 6D/6D). Chromosomes 1D and 3D have introduced to the analysed substitution lines resistance to wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina, synonym P. recondita f. sp. tritici) and resistance to preharvest sprouting (which is very important in hexaploid triticale), reflected in a high expression of seed dormancy, a high falling number, and low alpha-amylase activity in grain.

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Reaction of 19 breeding lines and two cultivars of winter triticale to Fusarium head blight was evaluated. Lines were sown in field experiments in two locations — Radzików and Cerekwica. Triticale heads were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum mixture. Average FHB severity in Radzików ranged from 0 to 13.3% and was lower than in Cerekwica (2.0–22.3%). Fusarium damaged kernels proportion was 10-fold higher in Cerekwica than in Radzików. FDK ranged from 7.3 to 47.0% in Cerekwica and from 0.3 to 5.6% in Radzików. Differences between lines for FBH and FDK were statistically significant for data from both locations. Ergosterol, deoxynivalenol and nivalenol were detected in all samples of triticale grain except one for NIV. Variation range of ERG was 2.22–21.21 in Cerekwica and 1.99–7.67 in Radzików. For DON, variation range was wider in Cerekwica (0.39–11.49 ppm) than in Radzików (0.30–2.98 ppm). NIV concentration was higher in Radzików and varied from 0.03 to 1.62 ppm, and in Cerekwica from 0 to 0.56 ppm. Head infection correlated significantly with FDK and DON concentration. FDK correlated significantly with ERG and DON content for all samples. Lines with all types of FHB resistance were identified.

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Authors: T. Warzecha, T. Adamski, Z. Kaczmarek, M. Surma, P. Goliński, J. Perkowski, J. Chełkowski, H. Wiśniewska, K. Krystkowiak and A. Kuczyńska

Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Sm.) Sacc. is a pathogen affecting seedling, head, root and stem of barley, and the infection can result in significantly reduction of yield and grain quality. The aim of the studies was to compare the susceptibility of hulless and hulled barley doubled haploids (DH) to infection with F. culmorum . Thirty DH lines (15 hulled and 15 hulless) and their parents were inoculated with a conidial suspension of the isolate of F. culmorum KF350 (IPO348-01) (nivalenol chemotype). Experiment was carried out over six years. Spike infection score, kernel weight per spike, 1000-kernel weight and percentage of plump kernels (>2.5 mm) were examined in control and inoculated plants. In addition, in three environments, nivalenol (NIV) accumulation in infected kernels was analysed. Significant influence of genotypes and environments on spike infection, yield-related traits and NIV accumulation was found in inoculated plants. Hulless genotypes appeared to be more susceptible to infection than the hulled lines. The difference in NIV accumulation was not important — mean NIV content over three environments was similar for both groups of DH lines. Results suggest that glumes adhered to seed may protect it, to a certain degree, against penetration of the pathogen inside the seed.

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Authors: M. Kwiatek, H. Wiśniewska, Z. Kaczmarek, M. Korbas, M. Gawłowska, M. Majka, K. Pankiewicz, J. Danielewicz and J. Belter

Pch1 gene translocated from Aegilops ventricosa provides effective resistance to eyespot in wheat. To track the Pch1 gene introgression, we investigated 372 genotypes obtained from various breeding programs using endopeptidase EpD1b marker, sequence-tagged-site (STS) marker XustSSR2001-7DL, and the score of infection index (K-index) evaluated after in vivo inoculation test. These genotypes were divided into three groups with 136, 124 and 112 genotypes for the field test lasting three years. In 2011, the mean K-index was 0.81, while 2012 and 2013 the mean K-indexes were 1.60 and 1.46, respectively. Both marker results indicated that 18 genotypes possessed Pch1 gene. Statistical analysis of the level of K-index showed that these 18 genotypes were resistant to eyespot, which verified the proper assignment of wheat genotypes with Pch1 gene based on the marker data. Thus, the endopeptidase and XustSSR2001-7DL are useful for identifying sources of eyespot resistance gene Pch1 in wheat breeding program.

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