Neutron activation analysis (NAA) offers advantages for detecting impurity levels of select isotopes that have suitable neutron cross sections. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) on the other hand detects most isotopes, but suffers various molecular interferences and covers only a small beam size volume per run. These two methods are combined here to study a large number of isotopes in titanium thin films in an electrolytic cell experiment. Nine isotopes are covered by NAA and over 50 with SIMS. An overlap in the data sets allows a normalization of SIMS data to the more accurate NAA measurements.
Authors:G. Kim, H. Woo, J. Kim, T. Yang, and J. Chang
Monochromatic MeV-energy neutron source for secondary reaction was developed utilizing tritium embedded titanium (Ti-3H) thin film via 3H(p,n)3He reaction. We have measured the neutron energies and the energy spread by resonance reactions of 12C(n,tot) and 28Si(n,tot). The available energy was within the range from 0.6 to 2.6 MeV. Energy spread was 1.6% at energy of 2.077 MeV. The
flux in the beam direction was determined to be 3.76·107 n/s/sr by irradiating 197Au by about 2 MeV neutrons. This source was shown to be useful for measurements of nuclear data by measuring the total cross
sections of neutrons on Fe and comparing these data to the data of ENDF-6.
Authors:G. Kim, H. Woo, H. Choi, N. Kim, T. Yang, J. Chang, and K. Park
Neutron capture cross sections on 63Cu and 186W were measured by fast neutron activation method at neutron energies from 1 to 2 MeV. Monoenergetic fast neutrons were produced
by 3H(p,n)3He reaction. Neutron energy spread by target thickness, which was assumed to be the main factor of neutron energy spread,
was estimated to be 1.5% at neutron energy of 2.077 MeV. Neutron capture cross sections on 63Cu and 186W were calculated by reference comparison method on those of 197Au(n,γ). Not only statistical errors of gamma-counts from samples but also systematic errors in the counting efficiency for
HP Ge detector and the uncertainty of areal density of samples were considered in calculating neutron capture cross section.
Estimated neutron capture cross sections on 63Cu and 186W were also compared with ENDF-6 data.
Authors:N. Kim, D. Kim, H. Choi, Y. Kim, H. Woo, and K. Park
A quantitative analysis of an ancient Buddha statue was performed by external beam Proton Induced X-ray Emission for the purpose of identifying its originality. It is shown how the PIXE method can be applied for archeological study. The elemental composition of the statue is compared with that of several samples with definite ages. The experiment was performed by extracting 2.4 MeV proton beam through a 2 mm diameter collimator and 7.6 m kapton foil to the He atmosphere. X-rays were measured by a Si(Li) detector. The analysed elements were Fe, Cu, Ag, Au and Hg for gold coating and Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Sn, Au, Pb and Bi for bronze body.
Authors:K. Park, N. Kim, H. Woo, D. Kim, J. Kim, and H. Choi
Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to semiconductor grade silicon to study the concentration levels of impurity elements, the contamination during the single crystal growing process, and the vertical and radial distributions of impurities, along with the decontamination effect in the analysis. Twenty elements of Au, Br, As, W, Cr, Co, Na, Eu, La, Se, Zn, U, Th, Hf, Fe, Sb, Ag, Ce, Tb and Ta have been analyzed in p- and n-type wafers, single crystals and a polycrystal by a single comparator method using two comparators of gold and cobalt. Considerable surface contamination has been found and could be removed by etching the surface with nitric and hydrofluoric acid before and after irradiation. The impurity concentration has been found to be generally increased in the process of single crystal growth. The vertical and radial distributions of impurities have revealed that some impurity elements were more concentrated in the top region of a single crystal rod than in the middle region, and that Br, Cr, La, Eu and Sb were enriched in the central region and As, U and Fe in the outer region.
Authors:N. Kim, H. Choi, S. Chun, S. Cho, H. Woo, and K. Park
For the instrumental neutron activation analysis of trace impurities in high purity silicon wafer, a modified single comparator method has been applied. The energy distribution of the neutrons at the irradiation position was measured using the two flux monitors, Au and Co, and elemental contents were calculated using the silicon matrix in the wafer as a comparator. This has advantage of reducing the cross contamination from an external monitor during sample preparation and irradiation, the uncertainties from the non-homogeneity of the neutron flux and the error on the weight of comparators. Determination limits for 49 elements were presented under the condition of 72 hours irradiation at a neutron flux of 3.7·1013 n·cm-2·s-1 and 4000 s measurement. The analytical results obtained by this method and the conventional single comparator method were compared and were found to agree well within 5%.
Authors:H. Woo, S. Chun, S. Cho, Y. Kim, D. Kang, and E. Kim
The goal of this work was to optimize the liquid scintillation counting techniques for the determination of14C in stack effluent gases and in environmental samples such as biological and air samples. Carbon-14 activities in most environmental
samples were measured with the direct CO2 absorption method. The highest figures of merit were found through the variation of Carbosorb E and Permafluor V ratio, and
measurement windows. The best condition was an 1:1 volume ratio. Average 2.35 g of CO2 was reproducibly absorbed in the 20 ml mixture within 40 minutes. The counting efficiency determined by repeated analysis
of NIST oxalic acid standard and the background count rate were measured to be 58.8±1.4% and 1.88±0.06 cpm, respectively,
in case of saturated solution. The correction curves of counting efficiency for partially saturated solutions and for saturated
solutions with quenching were prepared, respectively. The overall uncertainty of the sample specific activity for near background
levels was estimated to be about 7% for 4 hours counting at 95% confidence level. Stack effluent gas samples were measured
by a gel suspension counting method. After precipitation of CO2 in the form of BaCO3, 140 mg of which was mixed with 6 ml H2O and 12 ml of Instagel XF. The counting efficiency was measured to be 71.5±1.7% and the typical sensitivity of this technique
was about 510 mBq/m3 for a 100 min count at a background count rate of 4.7 cpm. For the benzene counting method measurements were performed with
a mixture of 3 ml benzene and 1 ml of scintillation cocktail (5 g of butyl-PBD in 100 ml of scintillation-grade toluene) in
a low potassium 7 ml borosilicate glass vial. The counting efficiency and the background count rate were measured to be 64.3±1.0%
and 0.51±0.05 cpm, respectively. The long-term stability of samples has been checked for all the counting techniques over
a two week period, during which no apparent change in counting efficiency and background level was found.
Authors:K. Park, N. Kim, H. Woo, K. Lee, Y. Yoon, and S. Chun
A radiochemical separation method using Dowex 1×8 (200–400 mesh) has been applied to two tantalum metals of 99.9% purity. While tantalum was still retained on the resin, the elements Na, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn were separated with 2M HF and subsequently the elements Sc, As, Zr, Mo, Eu, W and Hf with a mixture of 0.5M HF and 3M HCl. The separation yields for all impurities was 98–100%. Elemental contents were calculated by a single comparator method using two monitors.
Authors:K. Park, N. Kim, H. Woo, K. Lee, Y. Yoon, and W. Hong
A radiochemical separation method using an anion exchange resin has been applied to 3N grade Nb for determining nine impurity elements. Five elements (Cr, Fe, Co, Zn and Se) were separated in 2M HF, three elements (Mo, W and Hf) in 32M HF, Nb in 0.5M HF/3M HCl, and Ta in 1M NH4F/4M NH4CCl. The contents of the elements were calculated by a single comparator method using two monitors of Au and Co. The main impurity was revealed to be Ta with a content of over 160 ppm.
Authors:G. Kim, W. Hong, H. Woo, J. Kim, C. Eum, J. Chang, and K. Park
A nanosecond proton bunching system has been constructed at Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). This
pulsed ion beam will be converted into corresponding duration of neutron pulse, which can reduce the scattered neutron background
during neutron spectroscopy. The pulsed beam is obtained by deflection and double bunching by RF field. RF fields are applied
to deflection and bunching electrodes as 2 kV p-p, 4 MHz and 2 kV p-p, 8 MHz, respectively. A push-pull RF amplifier has been
designed and constructed with a maximum output power of 300 W continuous wave (CW) between 2 and 30 MHz. The main parameters
of bunching beam were as follows: 8 MHz repetition rate, 2 ns FWHM, approximately 20% of duty factor and the maximum energy
spread of 2 keV within a pulse.