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  • Author or Editor: H. Yalcin x
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate microencapsulation of palm oil fractions (palm olein (POL) and 90% palm olein+10% palm stearin (POS)) using skim milk powder (SMP) and maltodextrin (MD) by spray drying. Twenty-seven emulsions with POL were prepared to determine appropriate solid content (SC) and oil/coating material ratio (O/CM) of the emulsions to be fed into the spray dryer. Emulsion properties, such as viscosity and stability, were affected by SC and coating materials. The effects of coating materials used in microencapsulation of POL and POS were also tested by using different ratios of SMP and MD. The microencapsulation efficiency (69.28–84.97%), the microencapsulation yield (14.50–31.79%), and the peroxide value (4.12–7.07 meq O2/kg oil) of the powders were affected by the coating materials (P < 0.05).

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Abstract  

This study is part of an effort to assess the level of background radiation for Erzincan Province of eastern Turkey. Radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 8.93, 11.39, 281.94, and 9.52 Bq/kg for the radionuclides 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs, respectively. The average annual effective dose from these natural radioactivity sources (238U series, 232Th series and 40K,) was calculated to be 27.9 μSv. Radioactivity levels in drinking and potable water samples were studied using a multi-channel low level proportional counter. The average gross alpha activity concentration was found to be 0.0477 Bq/L (min. 0.007 Bq/L; max. 0.421 Bq/L) and the average gross beta activity was measured as 0.104 Bq/L (min. 0.008 Bq/L; max. 1.806 Bq/L). These values lead to an average annual effective dose of 9.75 μSv from the alpha emitters and 56.34 μSv from the beta emitting radionuclides in water. The radioactivity levels in the water samples investigated were found to comply with the reference levels recommended by WHO and the regulations set forth by the Turkish Health Ministry.

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