The present paper reviews briefly the recent advance in radioanalysis of low level plutonium in environmental and biological samples. Lots of new radiochemical methods for determination of plutonium in aerosols, natural waters, soil, sediments and various biological materials have been developed. The use and prospects of several radiochemical procedures are discussed.
Authors:H. Bjørnstad, H. Lien, Yu-Fu Yu, and B. Salbu
Low level90Sr in environmental and biological samples is determined using a combined HDEHP solvent extraction-liquid scintillation procedure. Yttrium-90 is selectively extracted from nitric acid solution into 5% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene, and90Y in the organic phase is measured directly using an ultra low level liquid scintillation spectrometer.The working program of the Quantulus counter has been optimized. As the counting efficiency using liquid scintillation counting is high and the stripping and precipitation of Yttrium-90 oxalate is omitted, this procedure is simpler and more timesaving than traditional methods. The chemical recoveries of90Y were 85.1% for soil, 75.7% for milk and 65.3% for bone. The detection limit is 8 mBq.
Authors:Yu Yu-fu, B. Salbu, H. Bjørnstad, and H. Lien
An improvement of -energy resolution for determining low level plutonium has been investigated using combined solvent extraction-low level liquid scintillation counter. In the present work, -energy resolution of 270–290 keV for liquid scintillation spectra of236Pu and239Pu is attained. Thus the simultaneous determination of low level plutonium with -liquid scintillation spectrometry may be practized.
The aim of this paper is to investigate homomorphisms which reserve square-free languages or primitive languages. A characterization
of square-free-preserving homomorphisms is presented. We show that every square-free-preserving homomorphism is primitive-preserving.
Strongly cube-free-preserving homomorphisms are also studied.
57Co was produced with high pure nature iron irradiated by 8.5MeV deuterons. TBP-benzene extraction method and anion-exchange method were used to separate and purify it. The purified57Co was prepared into standard solution of about 30 to 50 g Co2+/ml carrier concentration and about 0.1 mol/l HCl. The specific activity of the standard solution was measured with 4
(ppc)- coincidence counting method. The final result was 476.82(1±0.42%)Bq/mg.
The energy of combustion of crystalline 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid in oxygen at T=298.15 K was determined to be -4795.91.3 kJ mol-1 using combustion calorimetry. The derived standard molar enthalpies of formation of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid in crystalline
and gaseous states at T=298.15 K, ΔfHmΘ (cr) and ΔfHmΘ (g), were -852.91.9 and -721.72.0 kJ mol-1, respectively. The reliability of the results obtained was commented upon and compared with literature values.
Co-combustion experiments of mixture of Huadian
oil shale and Heshan coal with high sulphur content have been conducted using
a thermogravimetric analyzer. The effects of five different Ca/S mol ratios
on the combustion characteristics of mixture fuel are analyzed using TG and
DTG curves. The results show that the initial temperature of combustion of
mixture fuel is decreased with an increase in the oil shale content of mixture
fuel. The combustion characteristic of mixture fuel is superior to that of
Heshan coal. Adding about 20 mass% Huadian oil shale into Heshan coal is feasible
for desulfurization of mixture fuel during combustion.
Kinetics of CaO desulphurization reaction and the effects of alkali carbonates on it have been investigated by thermogravimetric
analysis. A grain model was applied successfully to describe the kinetic behavior of the reactions. The activation energy
of surface reaction and that of the product layer diffusion were determined by using the model. It was found that the overall
desulphurization rate was controlled initially by surface chemical reaction and, in a later stage, by product layer diffusion.
Addition of alkali carbonates can decrease the activation energy of the surface chemical reaction, with increasing effectiveness
in the order of potassium, sodium and lithium. Such a property of alkali carbonates has also been demonstrated on a raw coal.
The process is discussed in terms of a working mechanism of solid-state ionic diffusion.