Family dysfunction is a significant risk factor for adolescent problematic gaming, yet few studies have investigated the bidirectional relations between changes in family dysfunction and adolescent problematic gaming and potential mediating mechanisms. This study thus examined the bidirectional relations between family dysfunction and adolescent problematic gaming and the mediating role of self-concept clarity within this relation.
Participants included 4,731 Chinese early adolescents (44.9% girls; M age = 10.91 years, SD = 0.72) who were surveyed at four time points 6 months apart.
Random intercept cross-lagged panel modeling found (a) family dysfunction directly predicts increased problematic gaming, (b) adolescent problematic gaming directly predicts increased experience of family dysfunction, (c) family dysfunction indirectly predicts problematic gaming via self-concept clarity, and (d) adolescent problematic gaming indirectly predicts family dysfunction via self-concept clarity.
Discussion and conclusions
The present study suggests that adolescents may be trapped in a vicious cycle between family dysfunction and problematic gaming either directly or indirectly through impairing their self-concept clarity. Findings indicate fostering youth self-concept clarity is essential to break the vicious circle between dysfunctional experiences in the family and problematic gaming among adolescents.
Wangshuibai is an indigenous scab resistance germplasm originated from Jiangsu, China. To characterize the genetic basis of scab resistance in this germplasm, QTLs for type I and type II resistances were detected using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population created by single seed descent from Nanda2419 × Wangshuibai and a molecular marker map of more than 4000 cM constructed using RAPD, SSR and STS markers. The major QTLs for type I resistance in Wangshuibai were mapped to chromosomes 4BL and 5AS, and those for type II resistance were mapped to chromosomes 3BS. In addition, a QTL on chromosome 2B showed association with both types of resistance. These QTLs were verified with QTL nearisogenic lines. We found, by mapping QTLs for agronomical traits in the same population, that on chromosomes 4BL and 5AS the scab resistance QTLs co-located with QTLs for plant height, thousand grain weight or flag leaf width. However, these associations could be break down by recombinant selection. We concluded that Wangshuibai is a valuable scab resistance gene resources and marker assisted selection would be of great help for its better utilization.