With the rapid development of the Internet, there is a need for evaluating the public visibility of universities on the Internet (i.e., web visibility) in terms of its implications for university management, planning, and governance. The data were collected in December 2010 by using Yahoo, one of the most widely used search engines. Specifically, we gathered “Single Mention” data to measure the number of times that each university was mentioned on websites. In addition, we collected network-based data on Single Mentions. We obtained another data set based on the 2010 world university rankings by Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). We employed several analytical methods for the analysis, including correlations, nonparametric tests (e.g., the Mann–Whitney test), and multidimensional scaling (MDS). The significant positive correlation between university rankings and web visibility suggests that indicators of web visibility can function as a proxy measure of conventional university rankings. Another distinctive implication can be drawn from the pattern of a disparity in web visibility stemming from the linguistic divide, that is, universities in English-speaking countries dominated the central positions in various network structures of web visibility, whereas those in non-English-speaking countries were located in the periphery of these structures. In this regard, further research linking web visibility to university management, planning, and governance is needed.
This study investigates the role of Twitter in political deliberation and participation by analyzing the ways in which South Korean politicians use Twitter. In addition, the study examines the rise of Twitter as user-generated communication system for political participation and deliberation by using the Triple Helix indicators. For this, we considered five prominent politicians, each belonging to one of four political parties, by using data collected in June 2010. The results suggest that non-mainstream, resource-deficient politicians are more likely to take advantage of Twitter's potential as an alternative means of political participation and that a small number of Twitter users lead political discourse in the Twittersphere. We also examined the occurrence and co-occurrence of politicians’ names in Twitter posts, and then calculate entropy values for trilateral relationships. The results suggest that the level of political deliberation, expressed in terms of the level of balance in the communication system, is higher when politicians with different political orientations form the trilateral relationships.
This paper provides a first-ever look at differences of centrality scores (i.e., networks) over time and across research specializations in Korea. This is a much needed development, given the variance which is effectively ignored when Science Citation Index (SCI) publications are aggregated. Three quantitative tests are provided—OLS, two sample t-tests, and unit-root tests—to establish the patterns of centrality scores across Korea over time. The unit-root test is particularly important, as it helps identify patterns of convergence in each region's centrality scores. For all other geographic regions besides Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Daejeon, there appears to be little promise—at least in the immediate future—of being network hubs. For these top three regions, though, there is a pattern of convergence in three-quarters of all research specializations, which we attribute in part to policies in the mid- and late-1990s.
This paper examines the Web visibility of researchers in the field of communication. First, we measured the Web visibility of authors who have recently published their research in communication journals contained in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) provided by the Web of Science. Second, we identified a subset of authors based on their publication outlets and summarize those researchers with the highest Web presence. Lastly, we determined the factors affecting their Web visibility by using a set of national and linguistic variables of the individual researchers. Web data were collected by using a Bing.com advanced search tool based on the API. Web presence is defined as the number of Web (co-) mentions of each researcher. We identified the most solely-visible scholars in the entire communication webosphere and scholars with the most networked visibility based on co-mentions. There is a weak but statistically significant correlation between researchers’ Web visibility and their SSCI publication counts. Further, US-based and/or English-speaking scholars were more noticeable than others on cyberspace.
There is a burgeoning interest among academic scientists and policy-makers in the development and employment of TH (Triple Helix) and WSI (Webometrics, Scientometrics, and Informetrics) research methods. However, the international literature has not systematically examined TH and WSI approaches in an Asian context. Furthermore, previous literature published in international journals does not adequately address the social forces shaping TH development in Asia. Therefore, the purpose of this special issue is to bring researchers together to discuss university-industry-government (U-I-G) relations and innovation diffusion in Asia employing WSI alongside other methods.
Noting the government's role in diffusing information across various sectors of society, this study analyzes the Twitter activity of the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MFAFF), one of Korea's government organizations. From a broad perspective, this study provides a better understanding of innovation activity mediated by social media—particularly the government's Twitter activity, a topic that has not been addressed by previous webometric research on Triple Helix relationships—by employing social network analysis and content analysis. The results indicate some limitations of the MFAFF's activity on Twitter as a mutual communication channel, although Twitter has the potential to facilitate risk management. Further, based on the MFAFF's confined use of its Twitter account, the results suggest that its Twitter account can be an effective information distribution channel, indicating Twitter's value as a communication tool for innovation activity through social media. This study provides an empirical analysis of the government's Twitter activity and contributes to the literature by providing an in-depth understanding of the Triple Helix relationship on the Web.
Authors:Sujin Choi, Ji-young Park, and Han Woo Park
In order to explore new scientific and innovative communities, analyses based on a technological infrastructure and its related tools, for example, ‘Web of science’ database for Scientometric analysis, are necessary. However, there is little systematic documentation of social media data and webometric analysis in relation to Korean and broader Asian innovation communities. In this short communication, we present (1) webometric techniques to identify communication processes on the Internet, such as social media data collection and analysis using an API-based application; and (2) experimentation with new types of data visualization using NodeXL, such as social and semantic network analysis. Our research data is drawn from the social networking site, Twitter. We also examine the overlap between innovation communities in terms of their shared members, and then, (3) calculate entropy values for trilateral relationships.
Authors:Gohar Feroz Khan, Junghoon Moon, and Han Woo Park
In this article, we propose mapping and visualizing the core of scientific domains using social network analysis techniques derived from mathematical graph theory. In particular, the concept of Network of the Core is introduced which can be employed to visualize scientific domains by constructing a network among theoretical constructs, models, and concepts. A Network of the Core can be used to reveal hidden properties and structures of a research domain such as connectedness, centrality, density, structural equivalence, and cohesion, by modeling the casual relationship among theoretical constructs. Network of the Core concept can be used to explore the strengths and limitations of a research domain, and graphically and mathematically derive the number research hypotheses. The Network of the Core approach can be applied to any domain given that the investigator has a deep understanding of the area under consideration, a graphical or conceptual view (in the form of a network of association among the theoretical constructs and concepts) of the scientific domain can be obtained, and an underlying theory is available or can be constructed to support Network of the Core formation. Future research directions and several other issues related to the Network of the Core concept are also discussed.
Authors:Gohar Feroz Khan, Seong Eun Cho, and Han Woo Park
The Triple Helix (TH) model and its indicators are typically used for exploring university-industry-government relations prevalent in knowledge-based economies. However, this exploratory study extends the TH model, together with webometric analysis, to the musical industry to explore the performance of social hubs from the perspective of entropy and the Web. The study investigates and compares two social hubs—Daegu and Edinburgh—from the perspective of musicals by using data obtained through two search engines (Naver.com and Bing.com). The results indicate that although Daegu is somewhat integrated into the local musical industry, it is not yet fully embedded in the international musical industry, even though it is international in scope. In terms of social events (i.e., musicals), unlike Daegu, Edinburgh is fully integrated into both the local and international musical industries and attracts diverse domains over the Internet.
Authors:Han Woo Park, Heung Deug Hong, and Loet Leydesdorff
Summary This paper elaborates on the Triple Helix model for measuring the emergence of a knowledge base of socio-economic systems. The ‘knowledge infrastructure’ is measured using multiple indicators: webometric, scientometric, and technometric. The paper employs this triangulation strategy to examine the current state of the innovation systems of South Korea and the Netherlands. These indicators are thereafter used for the evaluation of the systemness in configurations of university-industry-government relations. South Korea is becoming somewhat stronger than the Netherlands in terms of scientific and technological outputs and in terms of the knowledge-based dynamics; South Korea’s portfolio is more traditional than that of the Netherlands. For example, research and patenting in the biomedical sector is underdeveloped. In terms of the Internet-economy, the Netherlands seem oriented towards global trends more than South Korea; this may be due to the high component of services in the Dutch economy.