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  • Author or Editor: Hedvig Fébel x
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In nine mammalian species (mouse — cattle: 21.5 g–503 kg) lung total phospholipids (PL), alveolar surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) fatty acyl (FA) chain composition was tested relating to body mass (BM) and resting respiratory rate (RRR) associated adaptations. In PL, PC and SM oleic acid (C18:1 n9) provided negative correlations with RRR. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was strongly, positively correlated with RRR in the pulmonary PLs, and myristic (C14:0) acid correlated positively with RRR in the surfactant PCs. In pulmonary PLs negative allometry was found for myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic (C16:1 n7) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n3) acids and total saturation, while oleic (C18:1 n9), alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n3) and gondoic (C20:1 n9) acids, total n9 FA s and monounsaturation increased allometrically. In surfactant PC FA s palmitic acid provided negative, while oleic acid and monounsaturation positive allometry; the average FA chain length (ACL) was identical in all species. Surfactant SM FA composition was fully species independent for palmitic and arachidonic acids, total saturation, monounsaturation and ACL. The in vivo lipid peroxidation rate was species independent. The variability of lung PLs was consonant with the “membrane pacemakers theory”, while surfactant PC composition was mostly related to RRR.

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The present study was designed to investigate whether meat-type rabbits are able to perform treadmill running as a daily routine exercise, and if so, whether the exercise induces specific proportional changes in the fatty acid composition of their muscles. After a four-week training period 8-week-old rabbits were slaughtered and the total activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase was measured, showing a significant difference between the exercised and control groups (429 ± 126 IU/l vs. 639 ± 203 IU/l). Furthermore the fatty acid composition of m. longissimus dorsi (MLD) and m. vastus lateralis (MVL) was determined by means of gas chromatography. Exercise increased the proportions of oleic acid (C18:1 n-9) in both MLD and MVL as compared to the control group. However, the level of stearic (C18:0) and arachidonic (C20:4 n-6) acids significantly decreased in the MVL after the exercise. Changes in the fatty acid profile resulting from the physically loaded condition were of the same tendency in both muscles, adding that the MVL might have been exposed to the exercise more intensively; alterations there occurred in a more pronounced manner. Based on the inference that the composition of membrane structure was also affected, these alterations may have important consequences on meat quality.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: T. Veresegyházy, Hedvig Fébel, G. Nagy and Ágnes Rimanóczy

The absorption of ethanol from the rumen was studied in three British Milk sheep equipped with a rumen cannula. After removal of the rumen content and washing the forestomachs several times the reticulo-omasal orifice was closed and through the cannula 20 or 60 ml ethanol and 2 ml Cr-EDTA were infused in physiological saline. The entire fluid volume was 3000 ml. At the start of the experiment (0 min) and subsequently in the 5th, 15th, 30th, 45th, 60th and 75th minutes samples were taken from the fluid present in the forestomachs. During the 75-min experiment the amount of ethanol gradually decreased in the rumen. The rate of disappearance varied according to concentration. The graph depicting the change of ruminal ethanol concentration shows a curve typical of passive transport. The equation describing the disappearance of ethanol was y = -0.0474x2 + 5.6544x + 10.869 after the administration of 20 ml ethanol, and y = -0.1377x2 + 19.541x - 24.606 after the infusion of 60 ml ethanol. It was established that ethanol was absorbed through the rumen wall by a passive transport process.

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Pannon White growing rabbits (a group of 8) were exposed to treadmill exercise (3-9 m/s, 1.2-1.6 km/day) twice a day for 4 weeks, while additional 8 animals, kept inactive, were assigned as the control group. Weekly, 12 hours after exercise, venous blood was taken for serum metabolite and enzyme activity measurements. Total serum protein, albumin and creatinine levels significantly increased during the second half of the training, as compared to the control group. Triacylglycerol levels in the exercised group as compared to controls, however, were higher only after the first and the fourth weeks of the experiment. Resting non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration of the trained rabbits was lower at the end of the trial. On the other hand, there were no significant differences, as compared to the respective controls, in serum urea, total and HDL cholesterol levels. At the end of the exercise alkaline phosphatase activity was higher and total lactate dehydrogenase activity was lower in the trained rabbits. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities were not changed, while creatine kinase activity was slightly lower in the trained group. The serum cortisol concentration was not different in the trained and control rabbits.

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To study the possible effects of different inclusion levels of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on the lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox status of chickens, 200 three-week-old Ross 308 cockerels were assigned to four treatment groups of 50 birds each. The groups were fed a control and three experimental, isocaloric and isonitrogenous grower diets containing 15, 20 and 25% DDGS, respectively, combined with lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) supplementation until 6 weeks of age. It was found that DDGS inclusion increased the ether extract content of the diets which resulted in higher reduced glutathione (GSH) content and elevated glutathione peroxidase activity (GSHPx) in the liver. However, DDGS addition with Lys and Met supplementation did not influence the malondialdehyde content of the blood and the liver. The oleic acid proportion of the diet showed a close positive correlation with GSH content of the liver. A smaller ratio of methionine and cysteine in the diet with DDGS resulted in significantly higher liver GSH content. GSHPx activity increased parallel with the elevated GSH content of the liver homogenate, suggesting that the enzyme is activated by the actual supply of its co-substrate. In conclusion, the results show that DDGS, even at a high inclusion level combined with Lys and Met supplementation, has no initiative effect on lipid peroxidation in the blood and liver of broiler chickens.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Péter Sarlós, István Egerszegi, Szabolcs Nagy, Hedvig Fébel and József Rátky

Seasonal changes in testis volume, testosterone (T) productivity (GnRH test) and semen characteristics of Mangalica boars were studied. The biggest testis volume was measured in autumn and the smallest in winter. Significant differences were demonstrated between autumn-winter (P = 0.012) and autumn-spring (P = 0.015) in testis volume. The highest basic T concentration (Tb) was observed in autumn and the lowest in summer. The provoked T concentration (Tincr) was significantly higher in autumn than in spring (P = 0.0007). A strong correlation was observed between T concentrations and testis volume in spring. The highest ejaculate volume was measured in winter while the lowest in autumn. Significant differences were found in semen concentration as well as in the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate between seasons. The highest number of abnormal sperm cells was observed in spring while the lowest in summer. It can be concluded that the ejaculate of the Mangalica breed tends to be of lower volume and higher sperm concentration as compared to most pig breeds. Seasonal differences could be observed in testicular measurements, testosterone production capacity and sperm morphological features; however, sperm motility remained constantly high during the study.

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The absorption of three amino acids (leucine, alanine and lysine) from the washed, closed rumen was studied in a short-term (75 min) experiment in situ. The concentration of leucine and alanine did not change in the rumen during the experiment, while that of lysine continuously decreased, and 40% of the total lysine placed in the rumen was absorbed during the experimental period. The rate of absorption decreased in proportion to the fall of amino acid concentration.

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The intestinal absorption of trivalent and hexavalent chromium (Cr) given orally (experiment I) or infused in the intestine (experiment II) was investigated in rats. The nonabsorbable form of chromium (51Cr2O3) and water-soluble and more absorbable Na2 51CrO4 (the hexavalent form of Cr) were compared. Total retention of chromium given orally ranged around 15 percent of the dose, regardless of the chromium compounds applied. The absorption rate of chromic oxide, which is considered a nonabsorbable compound, was 14.4 as a percentage of chromium intake. This result indicates that some loss of chromium has to be taken into account in metabolic trials made by the indicator method. In isolated rat intestine, from the injected Cr 2.5% of chromic oxide and 43.2% of sodium chromate were absorbed during an hour (experiment II). The absorbed chromium was transferred to the liver where the liver tissue retained 10.9% of chromic oxide and 51.1% of sodium chromate. Radioactivity of v. cava caudalis following intestinal injection of Na2CrO4 was thirtyfold greater than after Na2CrO4 dosing. This phenomenon can be explained by the lower blood clearance of chromate. Different absorption rate of chromate depending on the route of administration could be due to the fact that the hexavalent form given orally was reduced to Cr3+ in the acidic environment of the stomach. When Na2CrO4 was infused directly in the intestine of rats, such reduction could not occur. This means that the acidic gastric juice might play a role in inhibiting the intestinal absorption of Na2CrO4 when this compound is given orally.

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This study was designed to determine the effects of calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (CS), hydroxyethylsoyamide (HESA), butylsoyamide (BSA) and soybean oil (SO) on degradation of crude protein and fibre in vitro, and on the blood plasma lipid parameters in vivo. Five mature wethers (body weight 75 kg) were fed five diets in a 5 × 5 Latin square experiment. The control diet consisted of 50% meadow hay and 50% concentrate with no added fat. The control diet was supplemented with CS, HESA, BSA, or SO. Fat was added at 3.5% of dietary dry matter (DM). The final ether extract content of the ration was near 6%. Each period lasted 20 days. Fat supplements, except HESA, consistently decreased the in vitro DM disappearance of soybean meal as compared to control. In contrast to the effect of other treatments, crude protein degradation was greatest in the test tubes with inocula obtained from sheep fed diet with HESA. Fat supplements equally inhibited the DM and fibre breakdown of alfalfa pellet. CS and HESA seemed to be less detrimental to in vitro fermentation of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than BSA and SO. All fat supplements increased blood plasma triglyceride, cholesterol and total lipid content. Plasma concentration of cholesterol and total lipid was highest with SO. The inclusion of CS in the diet increased 16:0, while all fat supplements increased plasma 18:0 and decreased 16:1 and 18:1 fatty acid content. Plasma 18:2n-6 was not changed by feeding CS and SO. However, compared to the control diet, 18:2n-6 increased with 12 and 41% in plasma fatty acids when sheep were fed HESA and BSA, respectively. The results showed that plasma concentration of linoleic acid was enhanced more when the amide was synthesised from butylamine than when from ethanolamine.

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Lipids are used to provide the energy to cover the metabolic needs and to provide essential fatty acids, which are important for membrane function [12]. Fats may contain high level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are prone to peroxidation [8] and will interact with the antioxidant defense system [1]. There is contradiction in the literature about whether the intake of fish oil enhance [7] or deplete [4] tissue antioxidant defenses and the glutathione redox system in different organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of different dietary oils on parameters of the lipid peroxide state and the glutathione redox system in C. gariepinus fingerlings.

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