Authors:Daniela Wöhrer, Joachim Spergser, Gabriela Bagrinovschi, Karin Möstl and Herbert Weissenböck
The aim of this retrospective study was to detect selected pathogens in pneumonic lung tissue of dogs of different age groups by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridisation (ISH) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to get information about their involvement in pneumonia formation. In archived formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded lung samples from 68 cases with the clinical and histologic diagnosis of pneumonia the histological pattern of pneumonia was re-evaluated and the samples were further investigated for the following infectious agents: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica, Pasteurella (P.) multocida, Mycoplasma spp., and Pneumocystis spp. In 47.1% of the samples at least one of the featured respiratory pathogens was detected. In 31.3% of these positive samples more than one pathogen could be found. The correct detection of CDV had been achieved in ten out of eleven positive cases (90.9%) upon initial investigation, but the presence of bacterial pathogens, like B. bronchiseptica (10 cases) and P. multocida (17 cases) had been missed in all but one case. While CDV and CRCoV infections were exclusively found in dogs younger than one year, the vast majority of infections with P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica were both common either in dogs younger than 4 months or older than one year. Thus, this retrospective approach yielded valuable data on the presence, absence and prevalence of certain respiratory pathogens in dogs with pneumonia.
Authors:Andrea Klang, Sandra Högler, Nora Nedorost, Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Ákos Pákozdy, Bethan Lang and Herbert Weissenböck
Hippocampal necrosis and hippocampal sclerosis in cats is a neuropathological entity which is a major concern in feline epilepsy. The aim of our study was to identify associated pathologic brain lesions possibly serving as aetiological triggers in this condition. Therefore, the formalin-fixed and paraffin waxembedded brain tissue of 35 cats diagnosed with hippocampal necrosis or sclerosis was examined retrospectively. In 26 cats inflammatory infiltrates could be found in the hippocampus or adjacent brain regions. Fifteen out of these animals demonstrated mild to moderate infiltrations by lymphocytes and complement deposition in the hippocampus similar to human limbic encephalitis, seven showed unspecific, predominantly non-suppurative inflammation, and two demonstrated suppurative inflammation of the hippocampus or adjacent brain regions. Additionally, one cat was diagnosed with central nervous manifestation of feline infectious peritonitis virus and another one with cerebral Toxoplasma gondii infection. Intracranial neoplasia was present in five cases altogether. Three of them comprised meningioma which was present additionally to lesions resembling limbic encephalitis in two cases, and a dentate gyrus alteration in one case. The other two tumour-associated cases comprised oligodendroglioma. Structural alterations of the dentate gyrus together with hippocampal sclerosis were encountered in three cases in total. Besides the case associated with a meningioma, one case demonstrated lesions resembling limbic encephalitis. A vascular infarct in the temporal lobe was encountered in one cat. In four cases no lesions other than hippocampal necrosis or sclerosis were found. The involvement of feline immunodeficiency virus infections, which may be able to produce hippocampal lesions, was not encountered in the cats examined.