Interpreting is a highly stressful activity and interpreters are accordingly expected to be stress-resistant. The stress-coping trait of personality hardiness predicts attainments in domains of the military, sport and so on. Adopting a mixed-methods approach, the present study was an attempt to explore whether personality hardiness facilitates interpreting performance in a sample of Chinese postgraduate student interpreters (n = 149) as it does in the aforementioned high-stress contexts. Based on the Hardiness Model, this study positioned interpreting anxiety as a mediator. Analysis of quantitative data suggested that personality hardiness not only correlated to but also predicted interpreting performance. Meanwhile, interpreting anxiety played a mediating effect on the link between personality hardiness and interpreting performance. Follow-up semi-structured interviews provided additional information regarding interviewees' perceptions and behavior during stressful interpreting situations, helping to explain and expand upon the initial quantitative results. Implications of the findings were also discussed.
Using uniform random design optimization and the mathematical model equation we optimized the regeneration tissue culture system of the chilli pepper. An efficient and detailed plant reproducible protocol in vitro has been established using different explants and induction media for three chilli pepper cultivars. The result displayed that the seedlings at the curved hypocotyl stage were the best choice to prepare for explants, the genotype of explants affected shoot buds induction frequency and number of shoot buds per explant, and the cotyledon explant was more responsive than hypocotyl explant. The optimal media for maximum shoot initiation and regeneration and the optimal elongation medium were obtained. For Capsicum annuum var. annuum (cv. Xinsu), Capsicum annuum var. annuum (cv. Neimengchifeng) and Capsicum frutescens (cv. Xingfu), the induction rates were 99.17%, 97.50 and 96.11%, respectively; the elongation rates of shoot buds were 86.67%, 85.19% and 82.96%, respectively. The MS medium with 0.57 μM IAA and 0.69 μM NAA is the best choice for root induction. The frequency of their root emergence was 95.00–98.33%. Regenerated chilli peppers were successfully acclimatized and cultivated with 100% survival. This work will help to improve multiplication process and the genotype of chilli pepper, and may have commercial impact.
A high-performance liquid chromatography—diode-array detection method was developed and validated to determine simultaneously eleven major alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. The alkaloids detected were corlumidine, protopine, coptisine, tetrahydrojatrorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, sanguinarine, papaverine hydrochloride, tetrahydropalmatine, bicuculline, and corydaline. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C-18 column with a mobile phase composed of A (0.2% acetic acid solution, adjusted with triethylamine to pH 5.0) and B (acetonitrile), with stepwise gradient elution. Ultraviolet diode-array detection was used; chromatograms were examined at the wavelength of 280 nm. The regression equations showed a good linear relationship between the peak area of each marker and concentration (r = 0.9994–0.9999). The recovery values ranged between 93.66% and 100.54%. The method was fully validated with respect to detection and quantification limits, precision, reproducibility, and accuracy. The described high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was successfully used for the differentiation and quantification of the eleven major alkaloids in C. decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. and can be considered an effective procedure for the analyses of this important class of natural compounds.