We have investigated the deformation history of the Keszthely Hills (Transdanubian Range, W Hungary), which belongs to the uppermost slice of the Austroalpine nappe system. This Upper Triassic to Upper Miocene sedimentary rock sequence documented the deformation of the upper crust during repeated rifting and inversion events. We investigated the structural pattern and stress field evolution of this multistage deformation history by structural data collection and evaluation from surface outcrops. Regarding the Mesozoic deformations, we present additional arguments for pre-orogenic (Triassic and Jurassic) extension (D1 and D2 phases), which is mainly characterized by NE–SW extensional structures, such as syn-sedimentary faults, slump-folds, and pre-tilt conjugate normal fault pairs. NW–SE-striking map-scale normal faults were also connected to these phases.
The inversion of these pre-orogenic structures took place during the middle part of the Cretaceous; however, minor contractional deformation possibly reoccurred until the Early Miocene (D3 to D5 phases). The related meso- and map-scale structures are gentle to open folds, thrusts and strike-slip faults. We measured various orientations, which were classified into three stress states or fields on the basis of structural criteria, such as tilt-test, and/or superimposed striae on the same fault planes. For this multi-directional shortening we presented three different scenarios. Our preferred suggestion would be the oblique inversion of pre-orogenic faults, which highly influenced the orientation of compressional structures, and resulted in an inhomogeneous stress field with local stress states in the vicinity of inherited older structures.
The measured post-orogenic extensional structures are related to a new extensional event, the opening of the Pannonian Basin during the Miocene. We classified these structures into the following groups: immediate pre-rift phase with NE–SW extension (D6), syn-rift phase with E–W extension (D7a) and N–S transpression (D7b), and post-rift phase with NNW–SSE extension (D8).