Authors:Yong-Hui Xie, Zheng-Yue Li, Kun Dong and Hong-Rui Zhang
Trifolium repens Linn (white clover) is the main host of several economically important thrips species in Yunnan Province, in China. The diversity and relative abundance of thrips found on white clover were surveyed weekly via destructive collections from May 2009–May 2010 in Kunming. The 1786 thrips adults were collected and prepared on slides, eight thrips species were identified. The predominant species was western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), then followed by Megalurothrips distalis, Thrips flavus, Frankliniella intonsa, Thrips palmi, Thrips hawaiiensis, Thrips tabaci and Megalurothrips usitatus. The largest variation in abundance occurred in Mid-Autumn and late Winter, with Thrips flavus dominant at Mid-Autumn and Megalurothrips distalis dominant at late Winter. The correlativity results showed that the population of western flower thrips was significantly negatively correlated to the population of M. distalis (P<0.01), and no significant correlation was found between the population of western flower thrips and the other thrips (P>0.05) in Summer of 2009. In Spring of 2010, the population of western flower thrips was negatively correlated to the population of M. distalis (P<0.05), and it was no significant correlated to the population of the others thrips (P>0.05). However, no significant correlation was found between the population of western flower thrips and the others thrips (P>0.05) in both autumn and winter of 2009.
Authors:Guangheng Dong, Hui Zheng, Xiaoyue Liu, Yifan Wang, Xiaoxia Du and Marc N. Potenza
Online gaming has become a popular leisure activity, in which males more frequently develop Internet gaming disorder (IGD) compared to females. However, gender-related neurocognitive differences have largely not been systematically investigated in IGD.
Cue-elicited-craving tasks were performed before game playing and immediately after deprivation operationalized as a forced break from gaming when the Internet was disconnected. Ninety-nine subjects with IGD (27 males and 22 females) or recreational game use (RGU; 27 males and 23 females) provided functional MRI and subjective data. Analyses investigating effects of group (IGD and RGU) × gender (male and female) at different times (pre-gaming, post-gaming, and post–pre) on cue-elicited craving and brain responses were performed. Correlations between brain responses and subjective measures were calculated.
In pre-, post-, and post–pre tests, significant gender-by-group interactions (p < .001, cluster size > 15 voxels) were observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Further analyses of the DLPFC cluster showed that in post–pre comparisons, results were related to less engagement of the DLPFC in IGD, especially in females. In addition, at post-test, significant interactions were observed in the caudate, as females with IGD showed greater activation as compared to those with RGU.
The results raise the possibility that women with RGU may show better executive control than men when facing gaming cues, which may provide resiliency against developing IGD; however, once they develop IGD, their gaming may impair their executive control and enhance their cravings for gaming, which may make it more difficult to quit gaming.
Authors:Min Wang, Haohao Dong, Hui Zheng, Xiaoxia Du and Guang-Heng Dong
Background and aims
Individuals with addictive disorders are usually characterized by impaired executive control, persistent craving and excessive reward-seeking. However, it is unclear whether there is a deviation in the connection pattern among the neural systems implicated in these problem behaviors.
One hundred thirty-six online gaming players were recruited in the current study (68 Internet gaming disorder (IGD) subjects and 68 recreational game users (RGUs) who served as controls matched on age, sex, years of education, and years of gaming). Dynamic interactions among the reward system (striatum), control system (prefrontal cortex), and the interoceptive awareness system (insula) were calculated and compared when subjects were facing gaming cues.
The results revealed that RGUs showed a significant positive correlation in the putamen-middle frontal gyrus (MFG)-insula neural pathway when facing gaming cues, which was missing in the IGD subjects. Additionally, dynamic causal modeling (DCM) analysis revealed that the MFG region was more inhibited by the putamen in the IGD subjects relative to the RGUs.
These findings suggest that the inhibitory neuromodulation of the putamen to the prefrontal cortex in IGD individuals undermines the balance among the tripartite systems. Our findings provide novel neurobiological evidence for understanding the internal connection bias of the addicted individual’s neural system and how the addictive disorder impairs executive control; consequently, the pathway from the striatum to the prefrontal cortex may serve as a potential biomarker to predict the risk of developing an addiction.
Authors:Li Gaoliang, He Hui, Zheng Weifang, Tang Hongbin, Li Huirong, Lan Tian, Liu Xiechun, Zhang Hu, Yang He, Luo Fangxiang, Xiao Songtao and Ye Guoan
Oxidation of Pu(III) in 1 bp solution to Pu(IV) was studied using the salt-free oxidant N2O4. It was proved that the reductants N,N-dimethylhydroxylamine (DMHAN) and monomethyl-hydrazine (MMH) present in 1 bp solution
of CIAE-APOR process can be oxidized and removed from the solutions also by N2O4 before the oxidation of Pu(III). The effects of the acidity, the temperature and the amount of N2O4 added on the oxidation of DMHAN and MMH were studied.
Authors:Weijian Ye, Wei Sun, Ruijie Chen, Zhe Wang, Xiao Cui, Hui Zhang, Shuyi Qian, Qi Zheng, Yangfeng Zhou, Jiafeng Wan, Jiali Xu, Xianqin Wang and Yunfang Zhou
Galangin (GAL), the major bioactive flavonol extracted from Alpinia officinarum Hance (Zingiberaceae), has attracted much attention due to its multiple biological activities. To develop a fast, reliable, and sensitive ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) method for the quantification of GAL in rat plasma and mouse tissues. UHPLC–MS/MS using electrospray ionization operating in negative-ion mode was used to determinate GAL in 18 rats receiving three doses of GAL (2 and 9 mg/kg by intravenous injection, 5 mg/kg by oral administration), with six rats for each dose. Blood samples were collected at 0.0333, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. A total of 25 mice received 18 mg/kg GAL by intraperitoneal injection. Liver, heart, lung, spleen, brain, and kidney tissue samples were collected at 0.25, 0.5, 2, 4, and 6 h. The precision of the method was better than 12.1%, while the accuracy ranged from −4.8% to 8.1%. The results of pharmacokinetics demonstrated rapid GAL absorption (tmax of 0.25 h), fast elimination (t1/2 <1.1 h) after three different dosages, and an absolute bioavailability of ~7.6%. Tissue distribution analysis revealed abundant GAL in liver, kidney, spleen, and lung and smaller amounts in brain. The developed method proved fast (3 min), efficient, and reliable, with high selectivity for the quantitative analysis of GAL in biological samples. This is the first study to identify the target tissues of GAL, and the results may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects in vivo.