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Summary Composite science and technology (S&T) indices are essential to overall understanding and evaluation of national S&T status, and to formulation of S&T policy. However, only a few studies on making these indices have been conducted so far since a number of complications and uncertainties are involved in the work. Therefore, this study proposes a new approach to employ fuzzy set theory and to make composite S&T indices, and applies it. The approach appears to successfully integrate various S&T indicators into three indices: R&D input, R&D output, and economic output. We also compare Korea’s S&T indices with those of five developed countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) to obtain some implications of the results for Korea’s S&T.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Euihyeon Na
Inyoung Choi
Taek-Ho Lee
Hyeseon Lee
Mi Jung Rho
Hyun Cho
Dong Jin Jung
, and
Dai-Jin Kim

Background and aims

Although Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been investigated in detail, minimal research has been conducted regarding the influence of different game genres on IGD. The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics of members of game genre-specific groups with IGD and to identify factors associated with IGD status in each group in a large sample of adults.


Internet games were categorized into four genres: real-time strategy games, massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), sport games, and first-person shooter (FPS) games. Participants (n = 2,923) who usually played one of these games completed an anonymous online survey that collected sociodemographic, game usage pattern, and psychopathological assessment data.


MMORPG and FPS game players more frequently met the criteria for IGD than participants in the other two groups. Differences between the IGD-suspected gamers within the genre-specific groups were observed for a few items, such as average game-playing time and the subscales of the behavioral activation system; however, the factors that contributed to the development of IGD within each game genre-specific group were found to be considerably different.

Discussion and conclusions

The findings of this study suggest that IGD is a stable psychiatric diagnosis encompassing users of a broad range of game genres. In addition, the development of strategies for the prevention of and early intervention on individuals at high risk for developing IGD may require consideration of the distinct characteristics identified as effective predictors of IGD in users of each game genre.

Open access