Authors:T. Somogyi, I. Holló, J. Csapó, I. Anton, and G. Holló
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of genotype and type of muscle on the mineral content of beef. Altogether 62 young bulls from Angus, Charolais, Holstein, Hungarian Simmental, Hungarian Grey, and Charolais×Hungarian Grey were used. The calcium content varied between 26–46 mg kg−1, in longissimus muscle of Hungarian Simmental it was significantly higher than for other genotypes except for Angus. Psoas major of Holstein had the highest phosphorus content, it significantly differed from the longissimus of Angus. Longissimus muscle of Angus was the poorest for magnesium, and the richest was the psoas major of Holstein and Hungarian Grey. Charolais had higher level of potassium in psoas major than Angus and Charolais×Hungarian Grey. Sodium content of semitendinosus in Charolais×Hungarian Grey was lower than in Holstein. Present data showed that levels were detected in the longissimus of Angus and semitendinosus of Holstein. Concerning zinc, a higher level was found in longissimus, especially for Holstein. The results confirmed that beef mineral content depends on genotype, and is related to muscle type, too.
Authors:G. Holló, B. Húth, E. Egri, I. Holló, and I. Anton
Intramuscular connective tissue plays an important role in determining meat tenderness. The objective of the research was to compare the collagen/hydroxyproline content and X-ray Computed Tomographic (CT) connective tissue proportion of longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in Hungarian Simmental bulls and cows. Animals (n=24) were slaughtered at similar live weight (bulls: 530.6+44.7 kg, cows: 527.3+53.5 kg) under standard commercial conditions in Hungary. After 24 h chilling, LT samples were taken from the right half carcass at the 12th rib. CT examinations were carried out with a 16-slice CT system (slice thickness: 5 mm). Samples were scanned at different user-selectable tube voltages e.g. low: 80 kV and high: 140 kV. CT value at LT muscle area of each mixed scan (80 and 140 kV) was determined. Volumetric connective tissue content was measured (above 200 CT value) as well. Following CT, the hydroxyproline/collagen content and intramuscular fat content of LT were determined. Cows had lower carcass weight (247 kg vs 295 kg), EU conformation score (3.5 vs 5.5), and fatness score (4.2 vs 5.9) than bulls (P<0.01). Bulls had higher LT area, but intramuscular fat content was similar for bulls (2.8±1.9) and cows (2.7±2.0). On the other hand, bulls had lower CT intramuscular connective tissue proportion in LT compared to cows (0.4±0.2% vs 0.7±0.3% P<0.01). The same tendency could be observed for the collagen content (0.5±0.2% vs 0.7±0.1% P<0.01). Correlation between the CT connective tissue proportion of LT and collagen content was r=0.8 (P=0.000). There was a weak positive correlation between slaughter age and CT connective tissue as well as collagen content of LT (r=0.3–0.4, P<0.05). In conclusion, intramuscular connective tissue proportion in LT increased with slaughter age, and older cows had higher collagen and connective tissue proportion than bulls. Mixed CT scans can be used for the analysis of intramuscular connective tissue content.
Authors:I. Anton, A. Zsolnai, I. Komlósi, A. Király, and L. Fésüs
The effect of the porcine myogenin (Myog) 3' polymorphism on birth weight, growth rate, carcass weight, lean weight, lean meat percentage and backfat thickness has been investigated in Hungarian Large White pigs. MYOG genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP assay. The obtained MYOGA frequency value was 0.6275. Due to the small number of BB piglets the effect of the MYOG genotypes on birth weight was not significant; however, an increasing tendency was observed from genotype AA to BB. The growth rate difference between MYOG genotypes was significant: BB animals showed the highest growth rate values during the fattening period. Since few results are available on the possible use of MYOG gene polymorphism in selection to improve carcass and growth traits, by this study the authors hope to provide additional data on this particular subject.
Intramuscular fat content (marbling) is an economically important factor in many beef carcass classification systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate marbling of longissimus muscle with different methods (USDA marbling score, image analysis of X-ray computed tomography scans, and conventional method), moreover it was aimed to establish the relationship between marbling traits and SEUROP conformation and fat score. Bulls (n=46) were slaughtered at an average weight of 536±126 kg and an average age of 646±437 days. The average growth rate of bulls was 955 g day–1, the average chemical fat content of longissimus varied between 2.3 to 5.0% in fat classes. The intramuscular fat content on CT-scans closely correlated with chemical fat content (r=0.9). The highest frequency of USDA marbling score was “small” (55.2%), followed by “slight” (25.5%), “modest” (17%), and “moderate” (2.1%). Bulls with higher growth rate had lower CT-measured marbling traits in longissimus muscle (r = –0.4 – –0.5). The CT scans of longissimus muscle can be used for the evaluation of marbling in Hungarian Simmental cattle. The SEUROP conformation and fat score have no relationship with marbling traits.
Authors:Tünde Takács, I. Biró, A. Anton, and He Chaoxing
(AM) fungi are obligatory biotrophic symbionts living in the roots of most
terrestrial plants. AM fungi (AMF) have a positive effect on plant growth and
plant nutrition, especially under stress conditions. The aim of the present study was to observe
the relationship between the mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient uptake of host
plants and the rate of AMF colonization in a pot experiment. The degree of host
growth responses to AMF colonization is expressed as mycorrhizal dependency
(MD). The pot trial was set up with a
sterilized calcareous chernozem soil from Nagyhörcsök (Hungary) in a growth
chamber under controlled climatic conditions. Tomato
L.) plants were inoculated with
(BEG12) strains and a
AMF culture produced by
authors. The dry biomass production, the micro- and macronutrient
concentrations of the shoots and the parameters of the mycorrhizal infection
were determined. Each AM fungi species or isolate caused different and
distinct changes in host plant growth and nutrient uptake. The biomass
production of tomato increased significantly in the presence of AM symbiosis.
The mean values of MD, calculated from shoot dry matter, varied between 36% and
55%. Mycorrhizal inoculation improved the P, N and K uptake of tomato. The
highest values for root colonization, frequency of infection or arbuscular
richness were found in the root of tomato inoculated with the two
strains. The highest MD and nutrient contents appeared in the shoot
of tomato treated withour
strain, which may
indicate a stronger affinity (compatibility) between the symbiotic partners.
The results confirmed that the selected AMF strains are applicable in
Authors:Viktória Tóth, Melinda Szilágyi, Fruzsina Anton, Éva Leiter, I. Pócsi, and T. Emri
Pairwise interactions between four antifungal compounds were studied. The β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor echinocandin B (ECB) showed synergistic effect with the cell wall hydrolase ChiB chitinase and EngA β-1,3-glucanase on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus rugulosus and A. fumigatus. The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) did not influence the antifungal activity of ChiB or EngA, but showed antagonistic effect with ECB on A. nidulans, A. rugulosus and A. fumigatus. PAF had no significant effect on the growth of the tested yeasts as it was expected and did not influence significantly the antifungal activity of ECB, ChiB or EngA against yeasts.
Authors:A. Zsolnai, R. Szántó-Egész, E. Ferencz-Elblinger, A. Dang Huu, A. Jánosi, E. Koppányné Szabó, and I. Anton
We used an alternative approach, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, to detect Mangalitza component in food products, and it has been compared to an established Recombinase Polymerase Amplification test. The correlation between the assays was significant (P<0.01). Linear determination coefficient between the assays was 0.993 and level of diagnostic agreement was high (Kappa=0.971).
Previously, a real-time PCR method based on TaqMan probe was developed (Szántó-Egész et al., 2013) for detection of Mangalitza meat in food products, using a Mangalitza specific sequence. Other Mangalitza specific sequences suitable for the same purpose are also in use (V. Stéger, personal communication).
Approaches like real-time monitoring of accumulation of the specific DNA product usually require specialised laboratory equipment. For Mangalitza detection, portable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) approach has been developed (Szántó-Egész et al., 2016), which requires a device capable of maintaining 39 °C and a lateral flow strip with easy yes/no indication of the successful amplification.
We wanted to develop another fast, non-PCR based test with minimal laboratory requirement to provide a third possibility to detect Mangalitza component in food.