Slaughterhouse sampling and examination of urogenital tracts of 499 sows and gilts culled for reproductive reasons from 21 Hungarian herds were performed over a 6-year period. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of different urogenital tract lesions, and to provide sensitivity and specificity estimates for macroscopic and bacteriological examinations in the diagnosis of urocystitis and endometritis. Furthermore, the association between endometritis and urocystitis was assessed. The prevalence of main lesions of the urogenital tract was similar to that reported in other studies. The 'sensitivity' of macroscopic and bacteriological methods was determined statistically by taking histopathology as the 'Gold Standard'. As a result, the 'sensitivity' of macroscopic methods for the diagnosis of endometritis and urocystitis was ≤ 18.1% and 47.9%, respectively, while the 'sensitivity' of bacteriology for the diagnosis of the same conditions was ≤ 31.8% and 63.0%, respectively. The presumed positive association between urocystitis and endometritis was confirmed; it was not confounded by parity. Animals affected by urocystitis had a 3.5 times higher odds to simultaneously have endometritis than animals without urocystitis.
In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity of 12 Hungarian isolates and the type strain ATCC 33144 of Actinobaculum suis to different antimicrobial compounds was determined both by the agar dilution and by the disc diffusion method. By agar dilution, MIC50 values in the range of 0.05-3.125µg/ml were determined for penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tylosin, pleuromutilins, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and lincomycin. The MIC50 value of oxytetracycline and spectinomycin was 6.25 and 12.5µg/ml, respectively. For ofloxacin, flumequine, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim MIC50 values were in the range of 25-100µg/ml. With the disc diffusion method, all strains were sensitive to penicillin, cephalosporins examined, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, tetracyclines examined, pleuromutilins, lincomycin and tylosin. Variable sensitivity was observed for fluoroquinolones (flumequine, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin), most of the strains were susceptible to marbofloxacin. Almost all strains were resistant to aminoglycosides but most of them were sensitive to spectinomycin. A strong correlation was determined for disc diffusion and MIC results (Spearman's rho 0.789, p<0001). MIC values of the type strain and MIC50 values of other tested strains did not differ significantly. Few strains showed a partially distinct resistance pattern for erythromycin, lincomycin and ampicillin in both methods.
This paper presents the embryological and pathological features as well as the terminology and classification of common atrioventricular canal, a type of endocardial cushion defect. The authors give a complete description of an extremely rare congenital cardiac malformation in an equine neonate. The diagnosis of a complete, balanced common atrioventricular canal of type C in Rastelli’s classification scheme was based on two-dimensional, contrast and colour Doppler echocardiography and subsequent postmortem gross pathology. To support our diagnosis and study the pathophysiological effect of the alteration, physical examination, blood gas analysis and other laboratory tests, electrocardiography and thoracic radiography were also performed. Our search of the literature suggests that this type of developmental anomaly might account for a higher percentage of equine congenital cardiac defects than was thought earlier. We suppose that some previously described congenital heart abnormalities were misinterpreted: these anomalies could have actually represented some type of atrioventricular canal defect, resulting from the failure of the endocardial cushions to undergo complete and proper fusion.
In this study one spleen-intact dog (A) and two splenectomised dogs (BSE, CSE) were infected with Babesia canis. All animals developed an acute disease characterised by fever, haemoglobinuria and anaemia, the latter being more severe in the splenectomised dogs. Fever and parasitised red blood cells were detected for three days after imidocarb treatment in the splenectomised animals. Haematological abnormalities included regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia (due to neutropenia and lymphopenia) in the acute phase, soon followed by leukocytosis, neutrophilia and left shift a few days later. Acute hepatopathy was detected in all dogs with elevated ALT activity, which was more seriously altered in the splenectomised dogs. Diffuse changes in liver structure and hepatomegaly were seen by ultrasonography. Liver biopsy and histology revealed acute, non-purulent hepatitis in the splenectomised dogs. Both splenectomised dogs were successfully cured after collection of 400 ml highly parasitised blood, proving that large-amount antigen production is possible with rescuing the experimental animals. Whole blood transfusion, imidocarb and supportive care with infusions, antipyretics, glucocorticoids and diuretics were applied. The spleen-intact dog clinically recovered after receiving supportive treatment, with no imidocarb therapy. Microbial infections developed in both splenectomised animals (BSE: haemobartonellosis, CSE: osteomyelitis caused by Escherichia coli), probably as a consequence of immunosuppression after splenectomy and glucocorticoid therapy.
The authors report the data of the first survey on the incidence of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) in Hungary. A PCR method specific for the detection of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) was developed, which proved to be suitable for diagnostic purposes. PCR screening of organ samples from pigs suspected to be affected with PMWS or PDNS revealed the presence of PCV-2 in 80% of the cases. Six PCV-2 genomes from Hungarian isolates were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic comparison with all the available PCV-2 sequences showed that porcine circoviruses circulating in Hungary are more variable than in several other European countries. Two Hungarian strains clustered together with the Spanish strains forming a distinct group; two others fell in a common group with the French, UK, and Dutch strains, whereas another two strains showed the closest relationship to two of the three known German PCV-2 sequences.
The aim of this study was to obtain prevalence estimates about the most important enteropathogenic bacteria:
Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli, Salmonella enterica
A and C in Hungarian farrow-to-finish pig herds. A total of 31 herds were selected, from where six pooled faecal samples, each containing three individual rectal faecal samples were collected from fattening pigs of 5–6 months of age. All 186 samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the pathogens mentioned above.
was found in 29 herds (93.55%) and in 108 samples (58.06%);
in 14 herds (45.16%) and in 23 samples (12.37%);
in 19 herds (61.29%) and in 53 samples (28.49%);
in 17 herds (54.83%) and in 40 samples (21.50%). We detected the presence of
A in 19 herds (61.29%) and in 46 samples (24.73%), while
C was found in 8 herds (25.81%) and in 11 samples (5.91%). All examined herds were infected with one or more of these agents. Herds with diarrhoea in the mid-to late finishing phase had almost 10 times higher prevalence of
than herds without such a history.