The state of radon in crystalline polymers, polyethylene and polypropylene, has been studied by methods of macro- and microauto-radiography. Radon-222 was introduced into the samples by diffusion from the gas phase at various temperatures and time intervals. Effects on the state of radon of such factors as density and polymer crystallinity, extent of macromolecular chain branching, spherulite radius, content of different admixtures, -ray photon irradiation dose or irradiation with accelerated electrons, etc., were investigated. In pure polymers, radon was found to be in an atomically dispersed state. Radon forms thermally stable accumulations at the surface as well as in the bulk of the material due to admixtures, gas bubbles and crazes. The probable effect of radon's tendency to form accumulations on the kinetics of its diffusion in crystalline polymers is discussed.
Authors:V. Balek, L. Pérez-Maqueda, J. Poyato, Z. Černý, V. Ramírez-Valle, I. Buntseva, and J. Pérez-Rodríguez
The effect of grinding
on thermal behavior of pyrophyllite and talc as commonly used ceramic clay
minerals was investigated by DTA, TG, emanation thermal analysis (ETA), B.E.T.
surface area (s.a.) measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron
A vibratory mill was used in this study, grinding
time was 5 min. It was found that the grinding caused an increase in surface
area and a grain size reduction of the samples. From TG and DTA results it
followed that grinding caused a decrease of the temperature at which the structure
bound OH groups released. The formation of high temperature phases was enhanced
with the ground samples. For the ground talc sample the crystallization of
non-crystalline phase into orthorhombic enstatite was observed in the range
of 800°C. For ground pyrophyllite a certain agglomeration of grains was
observed in the range above 950°C. Moreover, for both clays the ETA characterized
a closing up of subsurface irregularities caused by grinding as a decrease
of the emanation rate in the range 250–400°C. The comparison of
thermal analysis results with the results of other methods made it possible
to better understand the effect of grinding on the ceramic clays.
Authors:L. Pérez-Maqueda, V. Balek, J. Poyato, J. Šubrt, M. Beneŝ, V. Ramírez-Valle, I. Buntseva, I. Beckman, and J. Pérez-Rodríguez
Thermal behavior of talc samples (from locality Puebla de Lillo, Spain) were characterized by emanation thermal analysis (ETA),
DTA and TG. The ETA, based on the measurement of radon release rate from samples, revealed a closing up of surface micro-cracks
and annealing of microstructure irregularities of the talc samples on heating in the range 200–500°C.
For ground talc sample a crystallization of non-crystalline phase formed by grinding, into orthorhombic enstatite was characterized
as a decrease of radon mobility in the range 785–825°C and by a DTA exothermal effect with the maximum at 830°C. ETA results
characterized the microstructure development of the talc samples on heating and served to evaluate their radon mobility and
transport properties on heating and cooling. Transport properties of the talc samples were evaluated by using ETA experimental
data measured during heating to 600 and 1300°C, respectively, and subsequent cooling to room temperature.