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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: K. Molnár, M. Melles, I. Rodler, D. Stefler, and I. Ember

In year 2006, unusual clustering of cases caused by calicivirus was reported from several EU member states (Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, Finland, Norway). Various foods (raw vegetables, fruits, cultivated shells, etc.) may be contaminated at the location of cultivation; this is called primary contamination. Secondary contamination is when infected persons transmit the virus to the foods (e.g. bakery products) with contaminated hands.In Hungary the year 2006 was definitely the year of calicivirus outbreaks, the majority of which were detected in hospitals, elderly homes and children communities. The number and prevalence of outbreaks showed relatively high difference by counties. The outbreaks confirmed our conviction that without suitable and available laboratory methodology the agent could remain unknown. Furthermore, a general and controlled surveillance system is needed, which enables the rapid detection and elimination of gastrointestinal outbreaks of viral origin in collaboration with adequate laboratories.

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Several plant-originated natural compounds were shown to exhibit chemopreventive effect in carcinogenesis. In our studies, we have investigated CoD™ extract, a complex plant extract made from several tropical plants with possible cancer preventive effect in animal experiments. c-myc, p53 and Ha-ras gene expressions were investigated 24, 48 and 72 h after CoD™ extract and dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA) treatment in CBA/Ca(H-2 K ) mice. CoD™ extract administered together with DMBA diminished c-myc, p53 and Ha-ras gene expressions both in the 24 and 48 h experiments, but not in the 72 h experiments. Further in vivo and human studies are needed to clarify the possible role of CoD™ extract in the prevention of tumour formation after carcinogenic exposures.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: F. Budán, I. Szabó, Á. Ember, Ő. Horváth, L. Illényi, Zs. Orsós, A. Blasio, I. Magda, T. Gracza, P. Perjési, T. Dávid, G. Nowrasteh, and I. Ember

The combined effect of surgical treatment and consumption of so-called “CoD™ tea” (containing Uncaria guianensis, U. tomentosa and Tabebuia avellanedae) on expression of c-myc, Ha-ras, Bcl-2, Ki-ras and p53 key onco/suppressor genes, the carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) tumour markers in blood samples of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were investigated. Expression of genes followed the effect of the surgical treatment combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment; this may predict the outcome of carcinoma. Moreover their expressions might show possible additional effect of supportive therapy, e.g. CoD™ consumption. The antioxidant capacity of blood was also examined. Blood samples were taken at the day of, and one week, 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgical treatment. During that period patients got 0.25 l standard portion of CoD™ tea three times a day. The surgical treatment and neoadjuvant therapy were able to suppress the expression of c-myc, Ha-ras, Bcl-2, Ki-ras, p53 genes up to the twelfth month. Moreover, CoD™ tea together with conventional treatment caused a strong decrease in the expression of c-myc and Ha-ras oncogenes in comparison to the non-consumer control.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Bujdosó, F. Budán, T. Varjas, L. Szabó, A. Csejtei, J. Iványi, A. Huszár, I. Arany, I. Kiss, and I. Ember

Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) could contribute to tissue regeneration through the ability to form somatic cells. CD34 positivity is regarded as stem cell (SC) or endothelial progenitor cell (EP) marker. According to literature natural substances could increase the release of CD34 positive (CD34+) cells. In this study we investigated the basic rate of CD34+ cells in peripheral blood of CBA/Ca (H-2k haplotype) and BALB/c inbred mice by flow cytometry. Then we treated the mice with a new mixture of medical herbs, and we measured the level of CD34+ cells at 1, 3, 6, 18 and 24 hours after the treatment. A biological rhythm in the untreated blood was detected. Moreover the used herbal compounds increased the number of CD34+ cells.Although SC number is individually and highly variable in peripheral blood, the fluctuation could be used as a biomarker like the other compounds of peripheral blood in different aspects in risk assessment.

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Despite many different trials, no effective dietotherapy exists for curing enormous weight loss caused by malignant diseases yet. The present study was aimed at determining in an animal model, weather some natural products might be included in the dietotherapy of cancerous patients with cachexia. Tumour was transplanted into Fischer 344 rats drinking either seabuckthorn extract, green tea, deuterium depleted water, trace elements preparation, fruits’ extract or multivitamin solution. Weight loss, tumour growth and expression of Ha-ras gene were determined. All the investigated natural products have significantly decreased tumour growth, and trace elements preparation has significantly decreased weight loss. Green tea, seabuckthorn extract and deuterium depleted water have notably diminished Ha-ras gene expression. Our results suggest that these natural products may be useful in inhibiting tumour growth, and some of them may be applied in the dietotherapy of cancer-related weight loss.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: Éva Polyák, K. Gombos, B. Hajnal, K. Bonyár-Müller, Sz Szabó, A. Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, K. Marton, and I. Ember

Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

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