An exponential inequality for the tail of the conditional expectation of sums of centered independent random variables is
obtained. This inequality is applied to prove analogues of the Law of the Iterated Logarithm and the Strong Law of Large Numbers
for conditional expectations. As corollaries we obtain certain strong theorems for the generalized allocation scheme and for
the nonuniformly distributed allocation scheme.
The invasive gelechiid moth, potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873) was first recorded in Hungary (Komló, Baranya County) and Northern Croatia (Lug, Osijek-Baranja County) in December 2015. This quarantine species has not been reported from Hungary so far and it was known in Croatia only from the coastal region. The occurrence of Ph. operculella in the Carpathian basin is of great concern as this invader is able to cause negative impacts on the Hungarian potato cultivation. This occurrence of the species is one of the northernmost data in Europe so far.
Authors:M. Ördögh, S. Fazekas, E. Horváth, I. Óváry, L. Pogány, I. Sziklai, and E. Szabó
The regional distribution of copper and other trace elements was determined in the brain of a patient deceased in Wilson's
disease against a control brain. The heterogeneous distribution of copper was checked by scanning electron microscope equipped
with an X-ray microanalyzer.
Authors:J. Bajdik, K. Pintye-Hódi, G. Regdon, P. Fazekas, P. Szabó-Révész, and I. Erős
Eudragit NE 30 D aqueous dispersion is a commonly used coating material, which contains methacrylate copolymers as film-forming
agent and nonoxynol 100 as an endogenous emulsifier. The dissolution of the active ingredient from Eudragit NE-coated samples
during storage is known to undergo a change. The crystallization of the emulsifier agent can play an important role in this.
This polymer is not soluble in the gastrointestinal tract, but is permeable. Various parameters can influence the permeability
of this film, e.g. via the tensile properties of the film. Change in the film thickness can cause the stretching of the film
on a solid surface. Alterations in this physical parameter of the film were measured and the effects of different storage
conditions were evaluated. The free film was prepared by spraying onto teflon. The crystallization of nonoxynol was followed
via the changes in the DSC curve of the free film. A relationship was found between the film thickness and the crystallization
of nonoxynol. It was established that the different storage conditions influence these changes. The temperature and the air
humidity are important in this phenomenon. Lengthening of the storage time increased the difference in film thickness and
crystallisation of emulsifier.
Authors:T. Buday, Gy. Szabó, I. Fazekas, M. Paládi, Sz. Szabó, G. Szabó, and A. Kerényi
Heating with the use of ambient energy by heat pumps is a very effective way to reduce CO2 emission. However, efficiency, economic and environmental advantages depend on the type of the heat pump and the temperature of the source, the latter usually changes during the heating season. The aim of the paper is to give the annual pattern of the COP and emission as a function of the typical source temperature pattern, moreover yearly summarized energetic and emission values are also added in the case of air source, water source and ground source heat pump systems, compared to some conventional heating mode.
Authors:I. Fazekas, Gy. Szabó, Sz. Szabó, M. Paládi, G. Szabó, T. Buday, Z. Túri, and A. Kerényi
The aim of our report is to refer on the actual state of small biogas power plants in Hungary summarising the increase in their number and capacity and their effects on climatic change. The above is based on the CO2 emission of the energetic utilization of biogas and the calculation of its ecological footprint that were compared to the environmental effects of natural gas energetic utilization. The aim of this paper does not include the complete life cycle analysis therefore the environmental benefits of the energetic utilization of biogas produced from various raw material are presented via only the direct CO2 emission of the production process.
Authors:B. Oláhné Horváth, E. Fazekas, N. Kellner, and I. Magyar
Medium chain fatty acids are candidates of partial sulphur dioxide replacement in wine, as a solution to the growing consumer concerns about chemical additives. In botrytised sweet wine specialties, large amount of sulphur dioxide addition is one of the effective practices to stop alcoholic fermentation. Increasing medium chain fatty acid levels up to 80 mg l-1 was tested as a sole inhibitor on solid agar surface. S. bacillaris seemed to be the most sensitive, S. cerevsisiae and S. bayanus were more tolerant, while Z. bailii showed the highest tolerance. Then, increasing medium chain fatty acid levels up to 40 mg l-1 combined with 100 mg l-1 sulphur dioxide was introduced into a Tokaj Essence under refermentation. After 56 days, the highest dosage had pronounced effect on the yeast population, but the refermentation was not inhibited completely. Medium chain fatty acids have varying inhibitory effect on botrytised wine-related yeasts, moreover, it could be used effectively in media with high ethanol content, unlike Tokaj Essence.
Authors:T. Wirth, I. Fazekas, Cs. Schmidt, and J. Csiky
Between the years 2015–2018, 147 stands of Ficus carica L. was found out of cultivation in Baranya county. In 2008 presence of fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes L.) and caprificus individuals that are necessary for pollination, then for producing fertile seeds were detected in Pécs at first time. For germination tests fig seeds were collected from several different stands in Pécs and successful reproduction of the species was confirmed under in vitro conditions. According to former and recent observations (i.e. subspontaneous seedlings and/or successful in vitro germination of common fig seeds in 2010 and 2014) fig wasp may have occurred in Budapest and Máriagyűd too, at least in the last ten years. These results confirm that F. carica is an old ‘new’ casual or may be a naturalised neophyte element of the Hungarian flora. According to the new records the northernmost escaped individuals of F. carica was found at 47.475° N in the Carpathian Basin, 116.5 km N of the closest Slovenian stand in the latitudinal direction.
Authors:G. Molnár, T. Belgya, L. Dabolczi, B. Fazekas, Zs. Révay, Á. Veres, I. Bikit, Z. Kiss, and J. Östör
Prompt gamma-activation analysis (PGAA) is an important complementary technique to conventional instrumental activation analysis that can be successfully used in a number of cases when INAA is not applicable. Therefore, a PGAA facility has been constructed at the recently refurbished and upgraded Budapest Research Reactor. It occupies the end position of a new curved themal guide of 30 m length and 2.5×10 cm2 cross section which provides a clean beam of low energy neutrons. The sophisticated HPGe-BGO -ray spectrometer system can be operated in Compton-suppression and pair-spectrometer modes simultaneously. The octal splitting of the main BGO improves efficient pair mode operation when coincidences between pairs of opposite segments and the HPGe detector are required separately. Gamma-gamma coincidence measurements will also be possible when the new multiparameter data acquisition system is completed. One of the main tasks at the new facility will be the accumulation of new spectroscopic data for detector calibration and standardisation, as well as for the construction of a more accurate prompt -ray library for the chemical elements. Various applications are planned, such as the determination of hydrogen in fullerenes and of toxic trace elements in environmental samples.