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Pregnancy in the cult of Lengyel culture and the Neolithic of South-East Europe . The present paper examines the role of idols of pregnant women and pregnancy in the Neolithic cult of Central and Southeastern Europe after 72 selected representations. The study started from three clay idols showing marks of pregnancy from the Mórágy, Györe and Santovka sites of the Lengyel culture and the burial of a woman who had died in childbirth unearthed in the Lengyel culture cemetery of Alsónyék-Kanizsa-dűlő. The first representations of pregnancy appeared in the Palaeolithic and they also occurred, even though sporadically, in the Neolithic of Near East and Southeastern Europe as well.Pregnant women are represented in the clay idols in standing, sitting (enthroned) and half-sitting positions just as it was normal at the idols of the Neolithic, although most of them belong among the standing representations. Sixteen groups of the representations of pregnancy could be differentiated by size and shape.Idols showing marks of pregnancy make a very low percent of the figural representations of the Neolithic and the Aeneolithic of Southeastern and Central Europe. The population of the Late Neolithic and Copper Age Lengyel culture also prepared similar figurines and used them at cultic events. The three idols of pregnant women from the Lengyel culture described in this paper represent three different types.All that we can say about the function of these objects is that they could take part in various versions of Neolithic idol cult, which however have not yet been unveiled.

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The place of the Svodín type anthropomorphic vessels in the Neolithic of the Danube Basin . The author carried out the typological analysis of the Neolithic and Early Copper Age anthropomorphic vessels of the Danube Basin on 70 complete or reconstructed items recovered from 53 sites and found analogues as far as Anatolia. He also determined the place of the “Svodín type” anthropomorphic vessels in the large group of anthropomorphic vessels of Central and Southeast Europe. A so-called threepartite “Schultergefäß” furnished with human traits (arms/hands, plastic breasts and plastic or painted facial parts) can be regarded as the archetype of the Svodín (Szőgyén, Slovakia) type anthropomorphic vessels. The vessels and the fragments that can be grouped in the type have been found on the territories of SW Slovakia and Lower Austria, at Aszód and Csabdi and also in larger numbers at a few sites of the Southern Transdanubian Lengyel culture, especially at Györe.The anthropomorphic vessels from Central and Southeast Europe entered into the database can morphologically be grouped into three forms (Gattung), eight series (Serien), 23 morphological groups and 42 versions. Basically, standing (72.3 %), sitting/enthroned (22.3 %) and hollow-pedestalled (5.2 %) vessel shapes can be differentiated. According to the analyses, vessel shapes that appeared only in the early or the middle or the late phase or only in the Aeneolithic and transitional shapes can be differentiated. The author also examines the meaning of the discussed anthropomorphic vessels, to what purpose they were made, based first of all on the finding circumstances.All the “Svodín-type” anthropomorphic vessels characteristic of the eastern occupation zone of the late Neolithic Lengyel culture came from the early phase of the culture. It could be observed that the figural plastic representations of the Lengyel culture show many similar traits to those of the Tisza culture in the Alföld, which is not surprising since the two cultures even shared a few sites on the territory of Northern Hungary.Regarding the anthropomorphic vessels, regional divergences can be discovered in the early Neolithic of Southeast Europe, which divergences increased in the subsequent periods and differences appeared between cultures and also between the individual sites.

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Abstract  

It has been shown that computerized derivatographic method with EGA technique can be applied to determine contents of organic matter and carbonates in soil samples with satisfactory accuracy and reproducibility of the results. The method enables simultaneous determination of the ‘mobile’ and ‘bound’ water in the sample.

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Funeral bed or cabin? On the structure of Lengyel graves with posts in South Transdanubia. The authors analyse the shapes and the structures of the graves of the Late Neolithic — Early Copper Age (Lengyel culture) cemetery of Alsónyék-Bátaszék (South Transdanubia) with the help of trait analysis (“Merkmalanalyse”). The primary aim of the analysis is to examine the evolution and the origin of the uncovered post structure graves, a new phenomenon in the Central and SE European Neolithic and Copper Age. A hundred and twenty-three graves (7.72% of all the graves) had an interior posthole in each corner of the shaft. Several types and versions of this grave structure could be distinguished based on metric and morphological traits. Beside the typology of the grave shafts, the authors examine the social status of the persons who were often buried in these graves with especially rare and unique grave furniture. According to the final conclusions, they were not immigrants but the members of the local Lengyel population. The data shed light on both the social and the hierarchical changes that took place in the life of the Lengyel communities at the end of the Late Neolithic and in the initial phase of the Early Copper Age.

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