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  • Author or Editor: I. Giles x
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Abstract  

The preparation of a set of standards for the calibration of the analysis of deuterium using the2H/3He, p/4He reaction is described. Important considerations in the selection of a suitable standard are that it should be stable under irradiation and be simple to prepare with ready control of the amount of analyte. These requirements were met by Ca/OH/2 which was prepared by the replacement of hydrogen with its isotope in known proportions in the reaction of CaO with water.

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Abstract  

The use, for analysis, of prompt gamma-rays excited by 5 MeV alpha-particles from the reactions19F(α,α′γ)19F,19F(α, nγ)22Na and19F(α, pγ)22NE, was studied. The precision of the analyses depended on the gamma-ray energy used for the measurement. Relative standard deviations were ±1.8, ±0.9 and ±1.3% using the 110-, 197- or 1275 keV gamma-rays. The method was tested with N. I. M. standard materials of calcium fluoride and fluorspar, and was used as a rapid method for the determination of fluorine in cements.

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Abstract  

Alpha induced prompt gamma-rays generated by excitation, or in nuclear reactions, were studied for 56 elements to select those elements having gamma-rays of sufficient intensity for analytical application. A catalogue of observed gamma-rays is given which lists their calculated interference-free sensitivities for analysis. Spectra of elements which potentially may be determined or which provide serious interference in the determination of other elements are illustrated, together with a compilation in increasing order of energy of all observed gamma-rays.

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Abstract  

A survey of the possibilities of analysis by alpha-induced prompt gamma-ray spectrometry is reported for 57 elements at a bombarding energy of 5 MeV. Additional data obtained at 11 and 16 MeV are given. Interference-free sensitivities are presented. The use of the position sensitive detector is introduced to overcome problems such as occur in prompt alpha spectrometry from (p, α) reactions. The technique is illustrated by studies on the reaction19F(p, α)16O and severely tested for boron analysis using the reaction11B(p, α)8Be and measuring the α0 and α1 groups.

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Abstract  

A simple, rapid and non-destructive method for the determination of vanadium and molybdenum in steels is described. The method uses prompt spectrometry of the gammarays obtained from coulomb excitation with 5 MeV alpha particle beams. Using the 320 KeV gamma-ray, 3.3% precision was obtained for vanadium analysis. The precision for molybdenum was 3.2% and 5.3% using the gamma-rays of 204 and 536 keV, respectively. The extent of interference from other elements is discussed.

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Abstract  

The prompt gamma-ray of 871 keV emitted during the bombardment of steels by 5 MeV alpha particles were used to determine nitrogen by means of the reaction14N(α, pγ)17O. The method is non-destructive, rapid and experimentally simple. It has a sensitivity of about 7 μg·g−1. In the nitrogen concentration range of 101–102 μg·g−1 the relative precision of the method is about 3%. The accuracy of the method compares with that of other nuclear methods.

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Summary  

The work describes the selection of an activable tracer that could be used to study dispersion patterns in an English estuary and was carried out in connection with the development and testing of a particle-tracking computer model. Understanding estuarine dynamics will assist in the decision-making process for estuarine management and in contingency planning. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been used to characterize the concentration and natural variation of 40 trace elements in suspended particulate matter and inter-tidal bed sediment in order to identify a suitable tracer. Results have shown that europium, terbium and ytterbium would be suitable to use in a tracer study as they have low background concentrations in sediments and little variability, (Eu: 1.31 mg . kg-1±13%, Tb: 0.90 mg . kg-1±16% and Yb: 2.91 mg . kg-1±18%). The ratios of these elements are constant throughout the estuary and experiments have shown that increases in concentration of any of these elements due to the addition of artificial elemental tracer could be quantitatively determined by changes in the ratio constant.

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