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The internal phylogeny and cryptic species of the taxon known as Ptychanthus striatus (Lehm. et Lindenb.) Nees were investigated using morphology as well as phylogenetic studies based on internal transcribed spacer II (ITS2) sequences. Both parsimony analysis and analysis based on Bayesian inference were performed. They both distinguished the African specimens from the Asian-Oceanian specimens, but resolved the specimens differently within these groups. Different alignment methods were compared, and the implied alignment obtained from the direct optimisation by program POY was found to produce a shorter tree in parsimony analysis than the DiAlign or manually improved Clustal alignments. Based on oil body characters and molecular evidence, the African population of Ptychanthus can be distinguished from the Asian-Oceanian one at the species level. The earliest applicable name for the African taxon is Ptychanthus africanus Steph.

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The aim of the present work was to compare the microbial communities of a mesophilic and a thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digester. For studying the communities cultivation independent chemotaxonomical methods (RQ and PLFA analyses) and T-RFLP were applied. Microbial communities of the mesophilic and thermophilic pilot digesters showed considerable differences, both concerning the species present, and their abundance. A Methanosarcina sp. dominated the thermophilic, while a Methanosaeta sp. the mesophilic digester among Archaea. Species diversity of Bacteria was reduced in the thermophilic digester. Based on the quinone patterns in both digesters the dominance of sulphate reducing respiratory bacteria could be detected. The PLFA profiles of the digester communities were similar though in minor components characteristic differences were shown. Level of branched chain fatty acids is slightly lower in the thermophilic digester that reports less Gram positive bacteria. The relative ratio of fatty acids characteristic to Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidetes and Clostridia shows differences between the two digesters: their importance generally decreased under thermophilic conditions. The sulphate reducer marker (15:1 and 17:1) fatty acids are present in low quantity in both digesters.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
K. Csanaky
,
D. Reglődi
,
E. Bánki
,
I. Tarcai
,
L. Márk
,
Zs Helyes
,
T. Ertl
,
J. Gyarmati
,
K. Horváth
,
L. Sántik
, and
Andrea Tamás

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with special importance in reproductive and developmental processes. PACAP is found in two bioactive forms: PACAP27 and PACAP38. Recently, we have described that PACAP38 is present in high levels in the milk of human and ruminant animals. Breastfeeding is of utmost importance in proper nutrition of the newborn, but artificial nursing with infant formulas is necessary when breastfeeding is not available. Composition of the breast milk varies during the whole period of nursing and it shows differences at the beginning (foremilk) and the end of an actual suckling (hindmilk). The aim of this study was to investigate PACAP38-like immunoreactivity (PACAP38-LI) in different milk and infant formula samples by radioimmunoassay and to prove the presence of PACAP38 in the infant formula by mass spectrometry. We found similar PACAP38-LI in human mature foremilk and hindmilk samples, in the fresh and pasteurized cow milk and also in formulas. However, we found significantly higher PACAP38-LI in the hypoantigenic formula undergoing extensive hydrolysis compared to the non-hypoantigenic ones. Our results suggest that PACAP38 is relatively stable in the milk and it can withstand the manufacturing processes.

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